Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Manipulation in Macbeth

Mac-nipulation In William Shakespeare's play â€Å"Macbeth†, manipulation is a very effective device. The main character Macbeth is a puppet controlled by the words coming from the three witches and Lady Macbeth. The four troublemakers provide Macbeth with the motivation and confidence he needs to kill Duncan and perform other dark actions. Macbeth is very ambitious; there’s no doubt about this. However, there is no sign of him changing from a loyal man to a power hungry man. That is until outside influences begin to interfere with his life.The people with the greatest impact on Macbeth are his wife, Lady Macbeth and the witches. However, he then learns to manipulate others himself. In the end, all the treachery is revealed and he realizes that he has been a pawn in this whole scheme of achieving absolute power. Lady Macbeth manipulates her husband on two occasions. â€Å"Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be, what thou art promised: yet do I fear thy nature; it is too full o’ the milk of human kindness, to catch the nearest way: thou woulds’t be great:† (I, v). First she flatters Macbeth and soothes his early fears of committing these dreadful acts.During the party she uses her most powerful persuasion, as she begins to question Macbeth’s honor and manhood by saying that he is less of a man if he fails in killing Duncan. Macbeth feels so much shame that he’s convinced that it is right for him to take action. If it weren’t for Lady Macbeth’s harassment, Macbeth would have never gone down this awful road that has an inevitable dead-end. However, the witches are at the roots of all this manipulation. The witches are the first to raise the possibility of Kingship and persuade Macbeth to act on it. â€Å"All hail Macbeth; hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!All hail Macbeth; hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! All hail Macbeth; thou shat be King hereafter. †(I, iii) The witches are polite towards Macbet h. They all hail to him, showing respect and flattery. They then offer him a truth, that he is the Thane of Cawdor. When the witches tell Macbeth of the two other prophecies he begins to think to himself of the possibilities of actually becoming King of Scotland. He wonders why the witches said that the prophecies were bad when they are such good news. Once again the witches offer half-truths to Macbeth and he is easily persuaded that he’s invincible and almighty. Be Bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn/ the power of man, for none of woman born/ shall harm Macbeth. † (IV, i). Macbeth believes that he is unconquerable because of the visions from the witches. The manipulation of the bloody Child gave Macbeth a false sense of security. Macbeth thinks that there is no person that has not been born of a woman, which is what makes him think he is even more unbeatable. This is the second and last time that Macbeth hears from the witches. Just like the first time, he reac ts on impulse to them and winds up being murdered by Macduff, who was born from a cesarean section.Macbeth’s first attempt at manipulation was unsuccessful. â€Å"If you shall cleave to my consent, when ‘tis/ it shall make honor for you. † (II, i). Macbeth is trying to get Banquo to join him because he suspects Banquo may know about the murder of Duncan. Banquo is decent and doesn’t trust the witches’ prophecies so he chooses not to join Macbeth. Banquo shows his courage by standing up to Macbeth and doing what is right, not what is easy. Because Macbeth has failed to manipulate Banquo he decides to have him killed by two henchmen.In addition, he tells them to kill Banquo’s son, Fleance because the witches manipulated Macbeth into believing that Banquo’s sons were the next in line to be king. Therefore, he also becomes just as much as a threat to Macbeth as Banquo is to him. Secondly, Macbeth attempts to appeal to the murderer’s sense of honor in the hopes of trying to get them to side with him. â€Å"Do you find your patience so predominant in your nature, that you can let this go? Are you so gospell’d, to pray for this good man and his issue, whose heavy hand hath bow’d you to the grave and beggar’d yours forever? † (III, i).Macbeth explains to the murderers that it has been Banquo that has betrayed them all along and he convinces them that Banquo is the true enemy. Here Macbeth uses the same tactics his wife used on him and he is successful in manipulating the murderer’s to go out and commit this murder for him. Macbeth is offering truth and lies to the murderers, as the witches did to manipulate him into killing Duncan. Although Macbeth does succumb to his wife and the witches’ persuasive methods, he becomes as good at manipulation as they do, maybe even better. However, in the end, manipulation is shown to be, no more than falseness and deception. Jakob Jubert Manipulation in Macbeth Mac-nipulation In William Shakespeare's play â€Å"Macbeth†, manipulation is a very effective device. The main character Macbeth is a puppet controlled by the words coming from the three witches and Lady Macbeth. The four troublemakers provide Macbeth with the motivation and confidence he needs to kill Duncan and perform other dark actions. Macbeth is very ambitious; there’s no doubt about this. However, there is no sign of him changing from a loyal man to a power hungry man. That is until outside influences begin to interfere with his life.The people with the greatest impact on Macbeth are his wife, Lady Macbeth and the witches. However, he then learns to manipulate others himself. In the end, all the treachery is revealed and he realizes that he has been a pawn in this whole scheme of achieving absolute power. Lady Macbeth manipulates her husband on two occasions. â€Å"Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be, what thou art promised: yet do I fear thy nature; it is too full o’ the milk of human kindness, to catch the nearest way: thou woulds’t be great:† (I, v). First she flatters Macbeth and soothes his early fears of committing these dreadful acts.During the party she uses her most powerful persuasion, as she begins to question Macbeth’s honor and manhood by saying that he is less of a man if he fails in killing Duncan. Macbeth feels so much shame that he’s convinced that it is right for him to take action. If it weren’t for Lady Macbeth’s harassment, Macbeth would have never gone down this awful road that has an inevitable dead-end. However, the witches are at the roots of all this manipulation. The witches are the first to raise the possibility of Kingship and persuade Macbeth to act on it. â€Å"All hail Macbeth; hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!All hail Macbeth; hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! All hail Macbeth; thou shat be King hereafter. †(I, iii) The witches are polite towards Macbet h. They all hail to him, showing respect and flattery. They then offer him a truth, that he is the Thane of Cawdor. When the witches tell Macbeth of the two other prophecies he begins to think to himself of the possibilities of actually becoming King of Scotland. He wonders why the witches said that the prophecies were bad when they are such good news. Once again the witches offer half-truths to Macbeth and he is easily persuaded that he’s invincible and almighty. Be Bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn/ the power of man, for none of woman born/ shall harm Macbeth. † (IV, i). Macbeth believes that he is unconquerable because of the visions from the witches. The manipulation of the bloody Child gave Macbeth a false sense of security. Macbeth thinks that there is no person that has not been born of a woman, which is what makes him think he is even more unbeatable. This is the second and last time that Macbeth hears from the witches. Just like the first time, he reac ts on impulse to them and winds up being murdered by Macduff, who was born from a cesarean section.Macbeth’s first attempt at manipulation was unsuccessful. â€Å"If you shall cleave to my consent, when ‘tis/ it shall make honor for you. † (II, i). Macbeth is trying to get Banquo to join him because he suspects Banquo may know about the murder of Duncan. Banquo is decent and doesn’t trust the witches’ prophecies so he chooses not to join Macbeth. Banquo shows his courage by standing up to Macbeth and doing what is right, not what is easy. Because Macbeth has failed to manipulate Banquo he decides to have him killed by two henchmen.In addition, he tells them to kill Banquo’s son, Fleance because the witches manipulated Macbeth into believing that Banquo’s sons were the next in line to be king. Therefore, he also becomes just as much as a threat to Macbeth as Banquo is to him. Secondly, Macbeth attempts to appeal to the murderer’s sense of honor in the hopes of trying to get them to side with him. â€Å"Do you find your patience so predominant in your nature, that you can let this go? Are you so gospell’d, to pray for this good man and his issue, whose heavy hand hath bow’d you to the grave and beggar’d yours forever? † (III, i).Macbeth explains to the murderers that it has been Banquo that has betrayed them all along and he convinces them that Banquo is the true enemy. Here Macbeth uses the same tactics his wife used on him and he is successful in manipulating the murderer’s to go out and commit this murder for him. Macbeth is offering truth and lies to the murderers, as the witches did to manipulate him into killing Duncan. Although Macbeth does succumb to his wife and the witches’ persuasive methods, he becomes as good at manipulation as they do, maybe even better. However, in the end, manipulation is shown to be, no more than falseness and deception. Jakob Jubert

Darden case study Essay

1. Using the full spectrum of segmentation variables, describe how Darden segments and targets the sit-down dining market. The types of segmentation include geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioral segmentation. For geographic segmentation, Darden has all of its Longhorn Steakhouse restaurants in the eastern half of the United States but they are trying to expand to the west coast. This is a great idea because out west is an untapped market with great potential for lots of earnings. Darden has a chance to redefine the image of steakhouses as is currently being done like the classiness that is being added to the brand. The customer traffic is increasing and Longhorn Steakhouse could potentially even overtake Outback Steakhouse as the premier steakhouse type of restaurant. For demographic segmentation, Red Lobster represents the opportunity Darden has to fill the gap between the young fast food concept and the upscale white-tablecloth restaurants. Red lobster is even making many changes to accommodate for the changing times around America which is causing sales to fall. With innovative concepts such as wood fired grilling resulting in a â€Å"taste of wood-grilled seafood† and investments in equipment and training, Darden is putting itself back in the spotlight to becoming recognized and respected. You can also never go wrong with fried shrimp so Red Lobster will always have that marketing card to play. The Psychographic segmentation is shown by how people want to feel positive emotions when they go out to restaurants such as the concept of a happy family and namely the mythical Italian family. Customers want to feel emotionally satisfied as much as they want to be physically satisfied by the food. Creating an authentic menu hits close to home because people get that warm and happy feeling when they see the authenticity. Even Olive Garden’s commercial â€Å"When you’re here, you’re family† and slogan show the feelings of connection that Americans want to feel and would be willing to come in for. Behavioral segmentation is shown in how less frequently Americans want to sit down at restaurants to eat their meals. With all of our financial constraints we are choosing different and more cost effective ways to eat out and have a good time with the family. Darden needs to use more cost effective ways to lower the meal prices so that family’s will once again be willing to eat out at a sit down restaurant on a regular basis.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

A Dirty Job Chapter 6

6 VARIABLE SPEED HEROES In the alley behind Asher's Secondhand, the Emperor of San Francisco hand-fed olive focaccia to the troops and tried to keep dog snot from fouling his breakfast. â€Å"Patience, Bummer,† the Emperor said to the Boston terrier, who was leaping at the day-old wheel of flat bread like a furry Super Ball, while Lazarus, the solemn golden retriever, stood by, waiting for his share. Bummer snorted an impatient reply (thus the dog snot). He'd worked up a furious appetite because breakfast was running late today. The Emperor had slept on a bench by the Maritime Museum, and during the night his arthritic knee had snaked out of his wool overcoat into the damp cold, making the walk to North Beach and the Italian bakery that gave them free day-old a slow and painful ordeal. The Emperor groaned and sat down on an empty milk crate. He was a great rolling bear of a man, his shoulders broad but a little broken from carrying the weight of the city. A white tangle of hair and beard wreathed his face like a storm cloud. As far as he could remember, he and the troops had patrolled the city streets forever, but upon further consideration, it might have just been since Wednesday. He wasn't entirely sure. The Emperor decided to make a proclamation to the troops about the importance of compassion in the face of the rising tide of heinous fuckery and political weaselocity in the nearby kingdom of the United States. (He found his audience was most attentive to his proclamations when the meat-laced focaccia were still nuzzled in the larder of his overcoat pockets, and presently a pepperoni and Parmesan reposed fragrant in the woolly depths, so the royal hounds were rapt.) But just as he cleared his throat to begin, a cargo van came screeching around the corner, went up on two wheels as it plowed through a row of garbage cans, and slid to a stop not fifty feet away. The driver's-side door flew open and a thin man in a suit leapt out, carrying a cane and a woman's fur coat, and made a beeline for the back door of Asher's. But before he got two steps the man fell to the concrete as if hit from behind, then rolled on his back and began flailing at the air with the cane and the coat. The Emper or, who knew most everyone, recognized Charlie Asher. Bummer erupted into a fit of yapping, but the more levelheaded Lazarus growled once and took off toward Charlie. â€Å"Lazarus!† the Emperor shouted, but the retriever charged on, followed now by his bug-eyed brother in arms. Charlie was back on his feet and swinging the cane as if he was fencing with some phantom, using the coat like a shield. Living on the street, the Emperor had seen a lot of people battling with unseen demons, but Charlie Asher was apparently scoring some hits. The cane was making a thwacking noise against what appeared to be thin air – but no, there was something there, a shadow of some sort? The Emperor climbed to his feet and limped into the fray, but before he got two steps Lazarus had leapt and appeared to be attacking Charlie, but he soared over the shopkeeper and snapped at a spot above his head – then hung there, his jaws sunk into the substantial neck of thin air. Charlie took advantage of the distraction, stepped back, and swung the cane above the levitating golden retriever. There was a smack, and Lazarus let go, but now Bummer launched himself at the invisible foe. He missed whatever was there, and ended up performing a doggy swish shot into a garbage can. Charlie made for the steel door of Asher's again, but found it locked, and as he reached for his keys, something caught him from behind. â€Å"Let go, fuckface,† the shade screeched. The fur coat Charlie was holding appeared to be swept out of his hand and was pulled straight up, over the four-story building and out of sight. Charlie turned and held the cane at ready, but whatever had been there seemed to be gone now. â€Å"Aren't you just supposed to sit above the door and nevermore and be poetic and stuff?!† he shouted at the sky. Then, for good measure, added, â€Å"You evil fuck!† Lazarus barked, then whined. A sharp and metallic yapping rose from Bummer's garbage can. â€Å"Well, you don't see that every day,† said the Emperor as he limped up to Charlie. â€Å"You could see that?† â€Å"Well, no, not really. Merely a shadow, but I could see that something was there. There was something there, wasn't there, Charlie?† Charlie nodded, trying to catch his breath. â€Å"It will be back. It followed me across the city.† He dug into his pocket for his keys. â€Å"You guys should duck into the store with me, Your Majesty.† Of course Charlie knew the Emperor. Every San Franciscan knew the Emperor. The Emperor smiled. â€Å"That's very kind of you, but we will be perfectly safe. For now I need to free my charge from his galvanized prison.† The big man tipped the garbage can and Bummer emerged snorting and tossing his head as if ready to tear the ass out of any man or beast foolhardy enough to cross him (and he would have, as long as they were knee-high or shorter). Charlie was still having trouble with the key. He knew he should have had the lock replaced, but it worked, if you finessed it a little, so he'd never made it a priority. Who the hell thought you'd ever have to get in quick to escape a giant bird? Then he heard a screech and turned to see not one, but two huge ravens coming over the roof and diving into the alley. The dogs arfed a frantic barking salvo at the avian intruders and Charlie put so much body English into wiggling the key in the lock that he felt an atrophied dancing muscle tear in his hip. â€Å"They're back. Cover me.† Charlie threw the cane to the Emperor and braced himself for the impact, but as soon as the cane touched the old man's hand the birds were gone. You could almost hear the pop of the air replacing the space they had taken up. The dogs caught themselves in mid-ruff; Bummer whimpered. â€Å"What?† the Emperor said. â€Å"What?† â€Å"They're gone.† The Emperor looked at the sky. â€Å"You're sure?† â€Å"For now.† â€Å"I saw two shadows. Really saw them this time,† the Emperor said. â€Å"Yes, there were two this time.† â€Å"What are they?† â€Å"I have no idea, but when you took the cane they – well, they disappeared. You really saw them?† â€Å"I'm sure of it. Like smoke with a purpose.† Finally the key turned in the lock and the door to Asher's back room swung open. â€Å"You should come in. Rest. I'll order something to eat.† â€Å"No, no, the men and I must be on our rounds. I've decided to make a proclamation this morning and we need to see the printer. You'll be needing this.† The Emperor presented the cane to Charlie like he was turning over a sword of the realm. Charlie started to take it, then thought better of it. â€Å"Your Majesty, I think you'd better keep that. It looks as if you might be able to use it.† Charlie nodded toward the Emperor's creaky knee. The Emperor held the cane steady. â€Å"I am not a worshiper of the material, you know?† â€Å"I understand that.† â€Å"I am a firm believer that desire is the source of most of human suffering, you're aware, and no culprit is more heinous than desire for material gain.† â€Å"I run my business based on those very principles. Still, I insist you keep the cane – as a favor to me, if you would?† Charlie found himself affecting the Emperor's formal speech patterns, as if somehow he had been transported to a royal court where a nobleman was distinguished by bread crumbs in his beard and the royal guard were not above licking their balls. â€Å"Well, as a favor, I will accept. It is a fine piece of craftsmanship.† â€Å"But more importantly, it will permit you to make your rounds in good time.† The Emperor now betrayed the desire in his heart as he let fly a wide grin and hugged the cane to his chest. â€Å"It is fine, indeed. Charlie, I must confess something to you, but I ask you to grant me the credulity due a man who has just shared witness, with a friend, of two giant, raven-shaped shades.† â€Å"Of course.† Charlie smiled, when even a moment before he would have thought his smile lost somewhere in the months past. â€Å"I hope you won't think me base, but the second I touched this, I felt as if I had been waiting for it my whole life.† Then, for no reason that he could think of, Charlie said, â€Å"I know.† A few minutes before, inside the store, Lily had been brooding. It wasn't her general brood, the reaction to a world where everyone was stupid and life was meaningless and the mere act of living was futile, especially if your mother forgot to get coffee at the store. This one was a more specific brood, that had started out when she arrived at work and Ray had pointed out that it was her turn to wear the vacuuming tiara, and insisted that if she wore the tiara, she actually vacuum the store. (In fact, she liked wearing the rhinestone tiara that Charlie, in a move of blatant bourgeois sneakiness, had designated be worn by whoever did the vacuuming and sweeping each day, and no other time. It was the vacuuming and sweeping she objected to. She felt manipulated, used, and generally taken advantage of, and not in the fun way.) But today, after she'd put the tiara and the vacuum away and had finally gotten a couple of cups of coffee in her system, the brooding had gone on, building to full -scale angst, when it began to dawn on her that she was going to have to figure out this college-career thing, because despite what The Great Big Book of Death said, she had not been chosen as a dark minion of destruction. Fuck! She stood in the back room looking at all the items that Charlie had piled there the day before: shoes, lamps, umbrellas, porcelain figures, toys, a couple of books, and an old black-and-white television and a painting of a clown on black velvet. â€Å"He said this stuff was glowing?† she asked Ray, who stood in the doorway to the store. â€Å"Yes. He made me check it all with my Geiger counter.† â€Å"Ray, why the fuck do you have a Geiger counter?† â€Å"Lily, why do you have a nose stud shaped like a bat?† Lily ignored the question and picked up the ceramic frog from the night before, which now had a note taped to it that read DO NOT SELL OR DISPLAY in Charlie's meticulous block-letter printing. â€Å"This was one of the things? This?† â€Å"That was the first one he freaked out about,† said Ray matter-of-factly. â€Å"The truant officer tried to buy it. That started it all.† Lily was shaken. She backed over to Charlie's desk and sat in the squeaky oak swivel chair. â€Å"Do you see anything glowing or pulsating, Ray? Have you ever?† Ray shook his head. â€Å"He's under a lot of stress, losing Rachel and taking care of the baby. I think maybe he needs to get some help. I know after I had to leave the force – † Ray paused. There was a commotion going on out in the alley, dogs barking and people shouting, then someone was working a key in the lock of the back door. A second later, Charlie came in, a little breathless, his clothes smudged here and there with grime, one sleeve of his jacket torn and bloodstained. â€Å"Asher,† Lily said. â€Å"You're hurt.† She quickly vacated his chair while Ray took Charlie by the shoulders and sat him down. â€Å"I'm fine,† Charlie said. â€Å"No big deal.† â€Å"I'll get the first-aid kit,† Ray said. â€Å"Get that jacket off of him, Lily.† â€Å"I'm fine,† Charlie said. â€Å"Quit talking about me like I'm not here.† â€Å"He's delirious,† Lily said, trying to pry Charlie out of his jacket. â€Å"Do you have any painkillers, Ray?† â€Å"I don't need painkillers,† Charlie said. â€Å"Shut up, Asher, they're not for you,† Lily said, automatically, then she considered the book, Ray's story, the notes on all the items in the back room, and she shuddered. It appeared that Charlie Asher might not be the hapless geek she always thought him to be. â€Å"Sorry, boss. Let us help you.† Ray came back from the front with a small plastic first-aid kit. He peeled back Charlie's sleeve and began to clean the wounds with gauze and peroxide. â€Å"What happened?† â€Å"Nothing,† Charlie said. â€Å"I slipped and fell in some gravel.† â€Å"The wound's pretty clean – no gravel in it. That must have been some fall.† â€Å"Long story.† Charlie sighed. â€Å"Ouch!† â€Å"What was all the noise in the alley?† Lily asked, needing badly to go smoke, but unable to pull herself away. She just couldn't imagine that Charlie Asher was the one. How could it be him? He was so, so, unworthy. He didn't understand the dark underbelly of life the way she did. Yet he was the one seeing the glowing objects. He was it. She was crestfallen. â€Å"Just the Emperor's dogs after a seagull in the Dumpster. No big deal. I fell off a porch in Pacific Heights.† â€Å"The estate,† Ray said. â€Å"How'd that go?† â€Å"Not well. The husband was grief-stricken and had a heart attack while I was there.† â€Å"You're kidding.† â€Å"No, he just sort of became overwhelmed thinking about his wife and collapsed. I gave him CPR until the EMTs came and took him off to the hospital.† â€Å"So,† Lily said, â€Å"did you get the – uh – did you get anything special?† â€Å"What?† Charlie's eyes went wide. â€Å"What do you mean, special? There was nothing special.† â€Å"Chill, boss, I just meant will we get the grandma's clothes?† He's it, Lily thought. The fucker. Charlie shook his head. â€Å"I don't know, it's so strange. The whole thing is so strange.† He shuddered when he said it. â€Å"Strange how?† Lily said. â€Å"Strange in a cool and dark way, or strange because you're Asher and you're out of it most of the time?† â€Å"Lily!† Ray snapped. â€Å"Go out front. Dust something.† â€Å"You're not the boss of me, Ray. I'm just showing my concern.† â€Å"It's okay, Ray.† Charlie looked like he was considering how, exactly, to define strange, and not coming up with anything that was working. Finally he said, â€Å"Well, for one thing, this woman's estate is way out of our league. The husband said he called me because we were the first secondhand store in the phone book, but he doesn't seem like the kind of man to do something like that.† â€Å"That's not that strange,† Lily said. Just confess, she thought. â€Å"You said that he was grief-stricken,† Ray said, dabbing antibiotic ointment on Charlie's cuts. â€Å"Maybe he's doing things differently.† â€Å"Yes, and he was angry at his wife, too, for the way she died.† â€Å"How?† Lily asked. â€Å"She ate silica gel,† Charlie said. Lily looked at Ray for an explanation, because silica gel sounded techno-geeky, which was Ray's particular field of geekdom. Ray said, â€Å"It's the antidesiccant that they pack with electronics and other things that are sensitive to humidity.† â€Å"The ‘Do Not Eat' stuff?!† Lily said. â€Å"Oh my God, that's so stupid. Everyone knows you don't eat the ‘Do Not Eat' stuff.† Charlie said, â€Å"Mr. Mainheart was pretty broken up.† â€Å"Well, I guess so,† Lily said. â€Å"He married a complete fucktard.† Charlie cringed. â€Å"Lily, that's not appropriate.† Lily shrugged and rolled her eyes. She hated it when Charlie dropped into Dad mode. â€Å"Okay, okay. I'm going outside to smoke.† â€Å"No!† Charlie jumped out of the chair and put himself between Lily and the back door. â€Å"Out front. From now on if you have to smoke you go out front.† â€Å"But you said that I look like a child hooker when I smoke out front.† â€Å"I've reassessed. You've matured.† Lily closed one eye to see if she could better glimpse into his soul and thus figure out his true agenda. She smoothed over her black vinyl skirt, which made a tortured, squeaking noise at the touch. â€Å"You're trying to say I have a big butt, aren't you?† â€Å"I absolutely am saying no such thing,† Charlie insisted. â€Å"I am simply saying that your presence in front of the store is an asset and will probably attract business from the tourists on the cable car.† â€Å"Oh. Okay.† Lily snatched her box of cloves off the desk and headed out past the counter and outside to brood, grieve really, because as much as she had hoped, she was not Death. The book was Charlie's. That evening Charlie was watching the store, wondering why he had lied to his employees, when he saw a flash of red passing by the front window. A second later, a strikingly pale redhead came through the door. She was wearing a short, black cocktail dress and black fuck-me pumps. She strode up the aisle like she was auditioning for a music video. Her hair cascaded in long curls around her shoulders and down her back like a great auburn veil. Her eyes were emerald green, and when she saw him looking, she smiled, and stopped, some ten feet away. Charlie felt an almost painful jolt that seemed to emanate from somewhere in the area of his groin, and after a second he recognized it as an autonomic lust response. He hadn't felt anything like that since Rachel had passed, and he felt vaguely ashamed. She was examining him, looking him over like you would examine a used car. He was sure he must be blushing. â€Å"Hi,† Charlie said. â€Å"Can I help you?† The redhead smiled again, just a little, and reached into a small black bag that he hadn't noticed she'd been carrying. â€Å"I found this,† she said, holding up a silver cigarette case. Something Charlie didn't see very often anymore, even in the secondhand business. It was glowing, pulsating like the objects in the back room. â€Å"I was in the neighborhood and something made me think that this belonged here.† She moved to the counter opposite Charlie and set the cigarette case down in front of him. Charlie could barely move. He stared at her, not even conscious that to avoid her eyes he was staring at her cleavage, and she appeared to be looking around his head and shoulders as if following the path of insects that were buzzing around him. â€Å"Touch me,† she said. â€Å"Huh?† He looked up, saw she was serious. She held out her hand; her nails were manicured and painted the same deep red as her lipstick. He took her hand. As soon as she touched him she pulled away. â€Å"You're warm.† â€Å"Thanks.† In that moment he realized that she wasn't. Her fingers had been ice-cold. â€Å"Then you're not one of us?† He tried to think of what â€Å"us† might be? Irish? Low blood pressure? Nymphomaniac? Why did he even think that? â€Å"Us? What do you mean, ‘us'?† She backed away a step. â€Å"No. You don't just take the weak and the sick, do you? You take anyone.† â€Å"Take? What do you mean, ‘take'?† â€Å"You don't even know, do you?† â€Å"Know what?† Charlie was getting very nervous. As a Beta Male, he found it difficult enough to function under the attention of a beautiful woman, but she was just plain spooky. â€Å"Wait. Can you see this thing glowing?† He held out the cigarette case. â€Å"No glow. It just felt like it belonged here,† she said. â€Å"What's your name?† â€Å"Charlie Asher. This is Asher's.† â€Å"Well, Charlie, you seem like a nice guy, and I don't know exactly what you are, and it doesn't seem like you know. You don't, do you?† â€Å"I've been going through some changes,† Charlie said, wondering why he felt compelled to share this at all. The redhead nodded, as if confirming something to herself. â€Å"Okay. I know what it's like to, uh, to find yourself thrown into a situation where forces beyond your control are changing you into someone, something you don't have an owner's manual for. I understand what it is to not know. But someone, somewhere, does know. Someone can tell you what's going on.† â€Å"What are you talking about?† But he knew what she was talking about. What he didn't know was how she could possibly know. â€Å"You make people die, don't you, Charlie?† She said it like she had worked up the courage to tell him that he had some spinach in his teeth. More of a service to him than an accusation. â€Å"How do you – ?† How did she – â€Å"Because it's what I do. Not like you, but it's what I do. Find them, Charlie. Backtrack and find whoever was there when your world changed.† Charlie looked at her, then at the cigarette case, then at the redhead again, who was no longer smiling, but was stepping backward toward the door. Trying to stay in touch with normal, he focused on the cigarette case and said, â€Å"I suppose I can do an appraisal – â€Å" He heard the bell over the door jingle, and when he looked up she was gone. He didn't see her moving by the windows on either side of the door; she was just gone. He ran to the front of the store and out the door onto the sidewalk. The Mason Street cable car was just topping the hill up by California Street and he could hear the bell, there was a thin fog coming up from the Bay that threw colorful halos around the neon signs of the other businesses, but there was no striking redhead on the street. He went to the corner and looked down Vallejo, but again no redhead, just the Emperor, sitting against the building with his dogs. â€Å"Good evening, Charlie.† â€Å"Your Majesty, did you see a redhead go by here just now?† â€Å"Oh yes. Spoke to her. I'm not sure you have a chance there, Charlie, I believe she's spoken for. And she did warn me to stay away from you.† â€Å"Why? Did she say why?† â€Å"She said that you were Death.† â€Å"I am?† Charlie said. â€Å"Am I?† His breath caught in his throat as the day played back in his head. â€Å"What if I am?† â€Å"You know, son,† the Emperor said, â€Å"I am not an expert in dealing with the fairer sex, but you might want to save that bit of information until the third date or so, after they've gotten to know you a little.†

Monday, July 29, 2019

WEEK 5 APPLICATION 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

WEEK 5 APPLICATION 1 - Essay Example d doctoral study, the researcher sought to determine the success of the Project Management Professionals or more specifically to establish the relationship between e-leadership styles and the success of virtual project managers in carrying out virtual projects. To achieve this, the researcher took seventy-four surveys, Leadership Behavioral Analysis II-Self (LABII-Self) surveys on direct project staff that was a clear representation of the population. The LABII provides significant information on how leaders perceive their leadership style, or draws a comparison between their leadership style and those of their peers. Indeed, this style derives an understanding on the perception of ones leadership style. The qualitative tradition applied in this research was ethnography. Most assuredly, the data analysis method used was appropriate for ethnography. Indeed, the method brings in a social and cultural connection as established in ethnography. More so, such a method is adaptive to field research situations like surveys, interviews, and participant-observations as proposed under ethnography. In addition, this data analysis method helps in the realization of more information than what is available at the time of data collection and can respond well to changes. In addition, the analysis method accommodates the two stages in doing a research, observing and recording of data and production and analyzing the research problem a seen in ethnography. Indeed, all aspects of data analysis methods are justifiable. This is because from the surveys, we can establish the leadership style flexibility, chances of misuse, major and minor leadership styles, and the resultant efficiency from respective leadership styles. Furthermore, I think there is no other data analysis method that was sufficiently relevant to this study. This method was able to derive all aspects of leadership as seen herein a fete I doubt any other method would achieve. Indeed, this method is not only specific to

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 8

Proposal - Essay Example Improve effectiveness of workgroups, encourage people to give support to and improve nation-wide pollution prevention campaigns as well as support and promote environmental pollution prevention actions of educational pollution prevention enterprises and regional forums Educate people on how to avoid environmental pollution. The paper will also utilize participants, through advisory council and workgroups to find and influence national policy issues, encourage people to cooperate with outside associates to affect community policy and ensure providers of pollution prevention have unlimited access to new program developments and technologies. Moreover, the paper aims at facilitating and supporting training opportunities of environmental pollution prevention and supporting the distribution and development of scholastic contamination prevention information besides ensuring that communities work together to create mechanisms for finding and addressing matters of joint concern. Engage them in the research: When I engage people in any research, they will be able to learn more and get an in-depth understanding of what is being talked about (Best, 28-31) for example asking them to visit areas of research is important in that they will be able to know how these substances are produced, how wastes are eliminated and how they result to environmental pollution. Public lectures: I will conduct public lectures on causes and effects of environmental pollution to people. Knowing its causes and effort, people will be able to take various initiatives of control and avoidance. Distributing leaflets: These leaflets will be able to communicate to a wide scope of the population on various issues concerning the environment and also educate them on control and prevention measures of environmental pollution. Soil contamination- caused by chemicals that are released by underground leakages or spill, most common are heavy metals e.g. cadmium and chromium,

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Book review of Hiroshima by Ronald Takaki Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Book review of Hiroshima by Ronald Takaki - Essay Example He seeks to prove that the American desire to end the war was just one of the many factors that lead to the final decision to drop the bomb. The story around Takakis argument is the little known reasoning behind the decision to drop the atomic bomb. Instead of simply focusing on the most accepted reason, to end the war, he explores other factors other than the obvious. His study of Harry Trumans letters to his wife, sister, mother, and his secret Potsdam Diary to open a "way to a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the reasons for the atomic attack" (Takaki 5). By analyzing the feelings of the President he succeeds in bringing together the many factors that led to the end decision. He proves to the reader the overwhelming postwar concern that Truman and other leaders felt and their urgency to exert their world power and dominance towards Stalin and Soviet expansion. As Robert Griffith reveals in his article for The American Historical Review Dwight D Eisenhower was aware of these postwar concerns writing, â€Å"Eisenhower struggled to strike a balance among the competing claims of the services and his lette rs are filled with angry denunciations of military self interest† (Griffith 96). Takaki reveals that in the beginning the atomic bomb was intended to target Germany, not Japan and that it was later determined that Germany did not have any atomic capabilities therefore diminishing the threat. Takaki then questions why the bomb was then dropped on Japan, a country we also knew did not have any atomic capabilities. He says, "The reason for this acceleration was not the possibility of Japanese atomic threat. Japan lacked the resources and technical knowledge to become a nuclear power" (Takaki 20). As Andrew Rotter confirms in his book review for the Journal of American History, â€Å"Japans nascent bomb project was

Friday, July 26, 2019

Importance of Web Marketing in Tourism Marketing Promotion Case Study

Importance of Web Marketing in Tourism Marketing Promotion - Case Study Example The investiture of additional resources in the Brazilian tourism industry has significantly expanded it, generating 5 million new jobs between 1996 to 2002 (Weaver, 2005). These investments are focused on â€Å"bettering management of natural and cultural resource; searching of more quality in delivering tourism services; developing promotion of tourism activities by gathering governmental and private initiatives; implementing basic infra-structure appropriated to regional potentialities, and investing in professional qualification† (EMBRATUR, 2001 cited in Theobold, 2004, p. 98). On the international side, the government noticed that the most viable sources of tourists are South American countries, Western European countries, the United States, and Japan, respectively. In 2000, Visit Brazil committees were established in several of those countries. According to EMBRATUR, those committees have participated in trade shows and sought to bring international investments to the Brazilian tourism industry (cited in Theobold, 2004). However, it appears that the improvements, when compared to the potentialities of the country, still represent relatively small numbers. According to the PNT - Politica Nacional de Turismo/National Tourism Policy - two international markets are considered of great importance to Brazil's tourism industry: Europe (Germany, Italy, France, Portugal, Spain, and the UK) and the United States. Between 1997 and 2000, the relative market share of Europe and U.S. tourists in Brazil has been constant: 25 percent from Europe and 12 percent from the U.S. (PAC, 2002). EMBRATUR (2001) maintains that tourism has not reached its perceived potential because the Brazilian government belatedly recognized its potential as a driver of economic growth and development. It was only by 1996 that the Government began to understand the importance of the enormous tourist potential in Brazil. It also realized that it would need to establish a strong administration for tourism promotion and development in order to fully capturing the tourism potential. At that time, the national tourism policy was drafted with definitions of macro strategies for both domestic and international markets (EMBRATUR, 2001 cited in Theobold, 2004).

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Concept of Ethical Obligations Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Concept of Ethical Obligations - Case Study Example Bush. He is considered to have an exemplary public administration and leadership skills that had been both his strengths and his weaknesses (White, 2008, p. 420). Tenet’s career can be considered unprecedented due to his achievements but there are challenges and dilemmas he had to face when he became the director of Central Intelligence (DCI). There are factors then considered to be the main reasons why in the end his efforts failed. These factors also caused ethical dilemmas on his part. The first dilemma is setting his leadership priorities and holding a highly multitasking position as DCI. Due to the fact that a DCI holds numerous roles, he had to answer to different groups and stake holders. The DCI’s role includes manager of CIA, president’s principal intelligence advisor, and the head of the entire intelligence community of 15 agencies. Tenet’s job is highly complex that even an expert would find it very challenging (White, 2008, p. 421). In his case though, the role is difficult because he is considered as an outsider in the institution. Tenet’s leadership can be considered handicapped due to his lack of experience in different expertise required in the role because â€Å"he had never run for political office, managed a large organization, worked as an intelligence officer, shaped American foreign policy, earned academic credentials by authoring a scholarly publication, or served in the military† (quoted White, 2008, p. 421). His perspective is different from the perspectives of the DIC before him which resulted to a more diplomatic type of leadership. The second dilemma he had to face is related to the prioritization of his ethical concerns. Due to the numerous agencies and institutions with different missions, visions and priorities he has to answer to such as the decision making process in White House, CIA’s intelligence priorities and his own conscience. At different points in

Global warming Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Global warming - Essay Example The incidence of climatic disasters is becoming more and more frequent. Hurricanes, floods, drought etc are continuously occurring at different parts of the world. It has been Man induced changes in the environment has been causing changes atmosphere and the ecology, which is eventually leading to climate change and global warming. The objective of this easy is to analyse the causes and impacts of global warming. It has been estimated that the average temperature of the air near earth’s surface has risen by 1.3 Fahrenheit (Venkataramanan & Smitha, 2011). However, this does not mean that every corner of the earth experiences an increase in temperature. This increase in the average temperature of earth has given way to systemic changes in the physical systems of the earth. For instance, the rise in temperature is experienced most in the poles. The systemic effect that this causes is that the ice melts in the poles which cause further change in the climatic patterns and ecologica l patterns in other parts of the globe. The warming in the poles along with change in wind pattern would result in colder winters in continental Europe. Similarly, West Africa would receive more rains while central Africa won’t receive enough rain (Venkataramanan & Smitha, 2011). ... The most important source for this is fossil fuel emissions. Whenever a fossil fuel is burnt in form of fuel as in the case of cars, aero plane or industrial units, carbon dioxide is emitted to the atmosphere and it gets accumulated. The chart below represents the sector wise contribution of green house gas emissions. Fig 1: Sector wise contribution of green house gas emission Source(Venkataraman & Smitha, 2011) The natural form of reversal of this accumulation process is the vegetation which absorbs carbon dioxide as a source of energy. However, the indiscriminate human intervention with the green cover of the earth is hindering this natural process. Deforestation limits the scope of carbon emitted into the atmosphere being absorbed by plants. Thus the amount of carbon in the atmosphere keeps increasing causing the globe to be warmer. Moreover, when plants are destroyed and they decay, the carbon stored in them is released back into the atmosphere which aggregates the problem. There are natural systems which are called ‘carbon sinks’ which stores carbon for thousands of years. The chain of activities as explained above results in these carbon sinks to fail. If the carbon stored in these carbon sinks are released, it may result in detrimental effects on earth’s various systems. It has been found that oceans which are carbon sinks are failing in their capacity to store carbon (Venkataramanan & Smitha, 2011). This is resulting in ocean water to turn acidic. This would in turn mean that ocean life will largely be affected. It is the green life within the ocean that helps the ocean to store carbon (Barnett, et al. 2005). Thus this act like a chain reaction where in the ocean turns acidic and the plants

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Operation management Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Operation management - Research Paper Example It facilitates the setting of priorities, ensures that operations are maintained, assesses performance, involves the people, and ensures that the organization forecasts on the future (Sanyal 2012). An OMS acts as the framework that facilitates the execution of an organization’s processes and procedures in order to ensure that an organization is capable of meeting its objectives sustainably. In the 21st century, many businesses have adopted an OMS that is geared towards ensuring that the business is able to generate stakeholder value. In this paper, a focus on the OMS developed by BP Company will be put into perspective together with a consideration of the potential areas that the company can work on to improve the OMS. BP plc is one of the largest multinational companies in the energy sector in the world today. It deals with oil, gas, petrochemicals, and renewables. In order to execute its global objectives, BP had developed an OMS. The company has integrated functionality in the industry having operations in the exploration and production of petroleum, oil refining, distribution of petroleum products, renewable energy production, trading, generation of power and petrochemicals. Dealing with petroleum and its affiliate products is a lucrative yet precarious business (Portougal & Janczewski 1998). In the past, BP has spent heavily due to unprecedented occurrences such as oil spills. The company lost its oil besides having to pay huge fines in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. To prevent such occurrences, the company has developed an OMS that is geared towards dealing with its operations in a manner that promotes sustainability and efficiency. The company’s OMS has been very influential t owards the milestones that have been made so far by the company. BP has a clear strategy that it endeavors to accomplish. This is captured in the company’s goal that is â€Å"to be a focused oil and gas company that delivers value over volume† (BP Website

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

SOPA and PIPA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

SOPA and PIPA - Essay Example egislation more acceptable to the technology community, content industries should have designed the legislation in such a way that it does not raise concerns about its ability to censor lawful activity. Content industries should also have ensured that the legislation does not threaten to disrupt the underlying architecture of the Internet especially because the legislation would remove an entire domain. These industries would have made the legislation more acceptable to the technology community by allowing targeted sites more time (than five days) to submit their appeals. This would give them enough time to defend themselves before losing the site and revenue (Blakeney 45). The money that piracy provides technology companies is a lot and this will make it difficult for the technology community to support curbs on piracy. Many internet users like the convenience with which they can get some materials from piracy sites and that is why they do not mind paying millions of money in order to keep getting accessing those materials. Technology companies make a lot of money from advertising networks that market piracy materials. They will also reject piracy curbs because they make a lot of money from providing links to sites that run piracy business (Blakeney

Monday, July 22, 2019

Dynamics Of Rebellion Essay Example for Free

Dynamics Of Rebellion Essay When the Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763) ended, England accumulated a considerable financial debt and sought to resolve this problem as fast as possible. Prime Minister George Grenville and his government reasoned that the debt had to be partly decreased at the expense of the Colonies which were held responsible for it by many politicians in London (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). One of the proposed options to raise the necessary revenue was the introduction of the stamp duties, a law which would require a governmental stamp on all important official papers and documents to make them legally acceptable (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). Grenville determined that this tax had to be levied to maintain English troops in America that were supposed to preserve public order there. But the colonists saw no need in the British standing army of ten thousand men in America in time of peace and believed it was stationed on their soil to keep them under control (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). At first, Grenville requested the colonial assemblies to come up with a better mechanism to raise the revenue from the Colonies than his stamp tax law. But as instead of proposing an alternative method most colonial assemblies expressed strong opposition to the proposed tax law, the Stamp Act was passed in March, 1765 and was due to go into effect in the Colonies on November 1 of the same year (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). Colonial response When the news of the act reached America, it was received with a storm of outrage and protests throughout the Colonies. The colonists explained their indignation by the fact that England had no right to impose taxes on them without their consent and because they were not represented in the decision-making process. A special letter was circulated to all the Colonies in which its authors called for a general congress that would be held in the autumn â€Å"Page # 2† of 1765. As a result, the representatives of nine Colonies held the Stamp Act Congress in New York while the other four Colonies expressed their support for its resolutions. The Congress criticized London’s policies, questioned its right to impose taxes on the Colonies, challenged its power to enforce the new law, and issued a Declaration of Rights. Its participants also signed a petition to the King and Parliament of England and called them to repeal the Stamp Act which they believed was unfair and discriminatory (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). Meanwhile, as November 1, 1765 was approaching, the Colonies showed their determination to oppose the Stamp Act. Riots broke out and numerous meetings were organized in many American cities. Governors and newly appointed stamp distributors soon realized that it was impossible and even dangerous to try to enforce the new law. Most distributors finally refused to receive the boxes of stamps that had just arrived from England (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). The general uprising was masterminded by several newly founded organizations, the most famous among which was â€Å"The Sons of Liberty†. It was formed in the summer of 1765 of thousands of men who chose the policy of intimidation of royal officials and were determined to lead the furious mobs to protect the rights of the Colonies. Businessmen also vowed to boycott English goods until the Stamp Act was repealed (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). Rioting in Massachusetts In Boston, Andrew Oliver, who was designated as stamp distributor for Massachusetts, was faced with the same difficulties as stamp distributors in other places. Local townspeople hanged him in effigy which they left in a street. Some neighbors tried to remove the effigy but were intimidated by the rioters into keeping away from it. At first, the majority of members of the City Council did not take the matter seriously. Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard â€Å"Page # 3† requested that the Sheriff send his officers to remove the effigy. However, it turned out that taking down the effigy would put the lives of officers in danger as the crowd was emboldened to attack them (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). At the afternoon meeting of the Council, most of its members decided to give up any attempts to take down the effigy. Some believed that it could be done after the crowd cooled down. But others suggested that the riot was to be taken seriously due to the fact that the majority of townspeople were involved in it. So they suggested that as they had no real support, they should do nothing about the effigy as it would only infuriate the crowd and unnecessarily put their lives in danger (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). By the end of the day, the mob brought the effigy to the Town House, went to a building that had been erected by Mr. Oliver, and destroyed it in a few minutes. After that, they headed for Mr. Oliver’s residence where they first beheaded and then burnt the effigy. Mr. Oliver had sent his family away and with a couple of his friends remained in his house at that moment. After having burnt the effigy, the crowd decided to attack the house. They demolished the fence, broke some windows, and then entered the house only to find out that Mr. Oliver had fled away. Infuriated, the mob declared that they were going to find the stamp distributor and kill him. They then headed for the two neighboring houses to check whether Mr. Oliver was hiding there. He was indeed in one of those houses, but a gentleman told them that Mr. Oliver had just fled to the Castle. No one doubted that if the townspeople had found Mr. Oliver there, they would certainly have murdered him (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). By midnight, the Sheriff and his officers went to Mr. Oliver’s house with the aim of persuading the townspeople to disperse. But the rioters began to hurl stones at them and they had no choice but to retreat. And it was not until after midnight that the crowd dispersed and the town became quieter (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). â€Å"Page # 4† Uprising in New York The most terrific riots occurred in New York where Cadwallader Colden, the Governor, tried to enforce the Stamp Act and in anticipation of the uprising ordered to strengthen Fort George and had its cannon pointed at the town. He expected the townspeople to get intimidated and disperse, but by introducing such measures he only further infuriated them (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). Colden was so furious that he was ready to fire on the townspeople as soon as they came closer to the gate of the fort. But the Sons of Liberty got wind if his intention and instead of storming the fort they sent a letter to Colden and warned him that they would hang him if he gave the order to fire on the townspeople. Terrified, Colden had no choice but to forbear from any aggression against the rioters (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). A few hours later the Sons of Liberty demanded to hand over to them the boxes of stamps that were kept in the fort so that they could destroy them. Colden’s refusal to cooperate only exasperated the townspeople, who erected the gallows on the Broadway and, like in many other places, hanged the Governor of New York in effigy (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). After that they seized Colden’s elegant coach, which was a symbol of his pride and power and after dragging it around the town, made a bonfire and burned it as well as the effigy and other property from his house. The Governor and other officers did not dare to interfere as they feared that it would trigger a general massacre that none of them would survive (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). After having burnt the effigy and the coach, the mob headed for the beautiful house of the mayor of New York and destroyed it setting fire to his rich library and many precious works of art. However, all these acts did not appease the townspeople’s anger as they failed to get hold of the stamps. The mob sent another letter to Colden in which they threatened to â€Å"Page # 5† storm Fort George and kill all of its occupants if he did not give up the boxes of stamps to them. The Governor finally agreed to have the stamps transported to the City Hall and the rioters never harassed him again (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). Moor, the new Governor of New York who arrived from England, at first also believed that he could enforce the Stamp Act and refused to accept any papers without the governmental stamps on them. But he soon realized the seriousness of the situation and was forced to publicly declare that he would not try to enforce the Stamp Act. All these concessions were not enough, though, and merchants and townspeople were still angry and refused to buy goods arriving from England until the law was repealed (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). Although Colden tried hard to execute the Stamp Act, he received no support from London and later was even severely reprimanded by English Government for having failed to enforce the law (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). The repeal London’s reaction to the uprising in the Colonies was calm. The Government could not send the army to America to punish the colonists and help British officials execute the Stamp Act because it had no money. By 1766, it became obvious that the law had brought more trouble than profit. British merchants complained that they were loosing a lot of money because the colonists were boycotting their goods. Parliament began to realize that insisting on the execution of the act would lead to serious consequences. So, when the majority of Members of Parliament in both Houses voted for the repeal of the Stamp Act, George III granted his consent on March 18, 1766 and the law was officially repealed. As a result of the Stamp Act uprising, the Colonies were victorious and London was defeated. However, larger problems between England and America were not solved and ended later in civil war (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). WORKS CITED: 1. Bernard, Francis. â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765. † Prologue to Revolution: Sources and Documents on the Stamp Act Crisis, 1764-1766. Ed. Edmund S. Morgan, 1987. 2. Elson, Henry William. History of the United States of America. New York: the MacMillan Company, 1904. 224-231. 15 June 2008 http://www. usahistory. info/American-Revolution/Stamp-Act. html 3. Nesnay, Mary. â€Å"The Stamp Act. † April 2004. 15 June 2008 http://www. marynesnay. com/STAMPACT. pdf 4. â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765. † 15 June 2008 http://www. accessgenealogy. com/african/nyriots/stamp_act_riot. htm

Sunday, July 21, 2019

What Is Talent Management?

What Is Talent Management? Chapter 1 Introduction Background of the study There has been a paradigm shift in the business environment across the world which has led to a growing demand of more efficient and phenomenal results from the scheduled operations and routine activities. This applies primarily to the field of human resource management which stands accountable for the acquisition, development, utilization and retention of the human capital. The present, as is evident, is immensely competitive, be it in terms of sourcing activities, investor relations, technological advancement or simply the workforce. The human resource managers are now faced with the double-edged sword of identifying, selecting and nurturing potential talent and also to formulate and implement pertinent strategies that can effectively contribute towards the achievement of organizational objectives. Hence, the biggest challenge that comes across the human resource panels is to get a hold of limited and thinning pool of skilled accessible candidates to replace important employees whe n they leave, hugely emphasizing the difficulty to attract, develop, motivate and retain the best employees in an organization. Authors, academicians and business experts alike maintain different views and opinions regarding the meaning of â€Å"talent†. Talent can be anything that predisposes an individual to success in a position or organization (Jason Lauritsen, 2010). The author further supports this view by stressing that talent is situational. A person can be advantageous because of his natural ability in one scenario but not necessarily in others. This means that in order to be successful that person has to be placed in a right role within an organization so that his abilities and capacities can manifest as talent to drive the success of the business. Another view maintains that talent can allegedly be a potential trait, a symptom of inherent ability, a foreshadowing of future greatness, or a way of describing an individuals early achievements or performance merits (Downey Greg, 2009). Whilst at the same time paradoxically, talent can be understood as the reason why some experts are more capable than others; unlike a concept like jeito, (a Brazilian term for knack), talent is more often than not generally very much task specific or specialized, even while a talented person is believed to be often quite versatile. Talent is specifically opposed to hard work or determination, implying that skill is primarily a mix of natural talent and hard work, in various proportions and quantum. Likely, talent is very much an idea or a skill that some people learn faster, more effortlessly, and with greater effect. In certain ways, talent can be thought of as a multiplier, enabling a person to achieve more out of formative experiences and activit ies. Keeping such ideas in mind, in the business purview, â€Å"talent management† is the process of matching capabilities with commitments (Donald H Taylor, 2007). This describes the aim of the entire talent management process. It underscores that talent management rather than being aimed at an individual focuses on the entire organization so as to ensure that the firm is able to achieve its set targets for both, the present and the future. The encompassed assumption here is that capability is based on an organizations sole source of value and competitive advantage in a developed economy: its human capital. â€Å"Talent management† comprises identifying a persons innate skills, traits, individuality and fitting him into the right work profile; every individual possesses unique talent that matches an exacting job profile and any other position will lead to discomfort (Salma Aliakabar, 2004). It therefore falls under the Management, specifically the HR Division, to situate candidates with discretion and prudence simply because a wrong fit can result in additional hiring, re-training and all such wasteful activities. â€Å"Talent management† is a complex assortment of associated HR processes that delivers an easy elementary benefit for any business (SHRM, 2009). Talent Management can be easily considered to be advantageous and important to both the organization and the workforce. The organization gains from: improved productivity and potential; an enhanced association between a persons efforts and business goals; commitment of esteemed workforce; reduced employee turnover rate; Better bench strength and an improved fit between individuals work and skills. Employees gain from: Enhanced motivation and dedication; career growth; increased awareness about and involvement in companys goals; Continued inspiration and job satisfaction. Analyst research has established that companies employing talent management strategies and solutions display superior performance than their direct competitors and the market in broad (SHRM Survey, 2009). About 83% of the large enterprises view integrated talent management as mission critical and upto 73% of HR professionals believe that talent management impacts the financial performance positively (Softscape Global HR Survey, 2009). As per the Talent Pulse Survey, (2005) about 1,400 HR professionals worldwide believed the attraction and retention of high-caliber employees as the most critical issue. These issues were further underscored by the fact that 54% of the respondents agree that talent issues have an influence on overall productivity and that there is a clear linkage between talent management and industry performance. HRVote, Human Resources magazines online voting forum reported that 44% of the respondents implied talent management and succession planning was a considerabl e challenge. According to an IDC study U.S. HR BPO 2005 Vendor Analysis: The Evolving Landscape, 37% of U.S. HR outsourcing expenses in 2004 was on HR and talent management services. Several taxing workforce problems confront HR, counting: Increased competition for skilled personnel. Imminent retirement of the â€Å"baby boomer† generation workers. Reduced levels of employee commitment. Realization of the high cost of the employee turnover. Onerous demands of managing global human capital. Necessity of succession planning. Outsourcing and off shoring practices. This necessitates novel thinking and a new charge to achieve success in an industry. These elements, coupled with the requirement to align workers directly with business goals, compel HR to progress from policy formation, cost diminution, process competence and risk management to lashing a fresh talent frame of mind in the organization. Therefore, talent management is an ongoing process that provides the optimal personnel for a particular business. Under this role, HR performs as the strategic enabler and a catalyst of talent management processes that empower the managers and workforce whilst developing business value. Taleos graphical representation stresses upon the mandate of talent management to be responsive to the organizational goals and accordingly be the driving force behind the business performance. Herein, talent management is denoted as a circular and not a linear, module of activities. In the present scenario, workforce expenditure is the prevalent category of pay out for most organizations. Automation and analysis of the recruitment and hiring processes of a firm delivers the abrupt labor force visibility and insights that are needed to notably perk up the bottom line. Performance management contributes towards the ongoing processes and activities to sustain a vast workforce. The future prospect of talent management is encompassed in the solutions planned from the scratch to provide for the business-centric operations on an integrated talent management platform. Decisions about talent management figure the competencies that companies have and their eventual achievement and from the perception of people, such decisions establish the path and pace of careers. In India currently, it may be difficult to visualize the crisis of possessing too much talent, but the first slump in the financial system, or even in a fragment of the economy will make things stand apart. Such mismatches are most definitely included in the primary problems that organizations and many large employers face. Over the precedent generation, companies specifically, seem to have jumped from surpluses of talent to shortfalls to surpluses and back to such a cycle. The challenge evident in front of the employers is to follow much more strongly the requirements for talent to evade both the shortfalls and oversupplies. Talent management is not an end in itself. It is not about fostering the growth of employees or charting succession plans. Neither is it about gaining definite benchmarks like a four percent employee turnover rate, having the most qualified and skilled personnel, or any such strategic outcome. The objective of talent management is the quite more general but valuable task of serving the business achieve its general objectives. And in the business world, that objective is to be profitable; be it in the short run or the long. What we need to attend to going onward is to ensure how to craft investments in growth affordable and fraction of that challenge embodies employee retention, making it probable to at least retain workers long enough to recover the training investments made in them. Problem Statement â€Å"Intense competition in the emerging Indian IT market has made talent retention and its management a challenge and therefore, questions the role of strategic talent management in being able to address such issues and being effective in an organizations overall effectiveness.† Talent Management has gained its fair share of fame in being effective in attracting, retaining and managing talented individuals. The Indian IT industry is marked with the following: The increased globalization has fuelled the growth as well as competition of the IT industry in India which is characterized by issues of talent retention. In spite of rising demand for talent, talent management has not yet completely arrived in India, making it all the more crucial in the current chaotic times and its effectiveness in the Indian scenario. Development of talent pools remains to be a sore issue with the HR professionals employed in the Indian IT sector. To summarize the above headings, the issue is the talent retention of skilled individuals in the Indian IT industry that leads to increased costs to an organization. The HR professionals have to engage in brainstorming activities in order to unearth ways to attract, retain and manage talents which are considered to be the biggest asset of a company today. Also, the talent management practices and their implementation in the Indian IT industry context have been far from satisfactory and add to the woes of a highly competitive market. Moreover, maintenance of talent pools so as to support succession planning and measures to integrate talent retention, employee commitment and employee involvement all stress the need to address the issue of talent management with a strategic bend. Aims and Objectives of the Study The aim of the study is to understand the importance of talent management in the current corporate scenario by collecting relevant information and enabling a better understanding of the strategic HR processes that a company can employ in order to manage and retain its key people. Aim â€Å"To understand the impaxt of a good talent management program on an organizations overall effectiveness, particularly in the case of Indian IT industry, in order to enable it to manage and retain its key resources; and gaining an understanding of the talent retention and employee involvement functions.† Objectives The objectives of the study are: To gain an understanding about talent management and its relevance to the current corporate scenario To explore the importance of talent management in the organizations overall success To study the role of strategic planning, employee retention and employee commitment in talent management To understand and evaluate the challenges faced in managing talent in the organizations today To study the role of talent management in prolonged employee satisfaction To explore the importance of talent management in the Indian IT industry and the significance of maintaining a talent pipeline for companies in the Indian IT sector To study the key drivers that lead to employee commitment crucial for a talent management system to be effective Significance of the study (to be edited upon the completion of the study) The implications of this research aim at exploring the relevance of talent management programs to the Indian IT indutry. It will assist the corporate in understanding the effectivess of framing such programs so as to be able to effeciently manage and retain its key players. Through implementation of talent management practices, the organizations efficiency is likely to increase, developing a proficient pool of skilled and talented employees which can be leveraged as a competitive strategy; making the corporate more competent to challenges in the industry. The research tests an employee commitment level to his/her organization and also aims at identifying the key drivers/attributes that propel employee commitement level in an Indian IT setting. The significance of the results mark that talent management programs are not only crucial and effective, but also cost-efficient, by maintaining a consistent pool of skilled employees tehreby reducing on the hiring, training and firing costs. In the present financial crisis effective workforce is the only difference that can make an organization carry its operations smoothly. Successful implementation of such talent management programs is of remarkable significance for the business. The research solution furthers the adoption of healthy talent management processes and its various functions to create significance for the business in achieving its ultimate goal of operational efficiency, cost control and profitability. Limitations of the study The study is subject to several limitations, some of which are highlighted as under: The study is confined to the specific organizations of the India IT sector. The finding of the study, therefore, cannot be generalized for the entire Indian scenario as a whole. Sample size, being small, is not completely representative of all the employees, employers and the HR people engaged in the Indian IT sector. All this might have affected the reliability of the results to some extent. Time as well as financial constraints are also one of the limitations of the study. Organization of the paper Chapter 2 Review of Literature 2.1 Meaning and Definition of Talent Management According to several authors, an all-encompassing definition of talent management is difficult to pin down. Lewis and Heckman (2006) pointed out that identifying an exact meaning of talent management is complicated owing to both the confusion regarding the definition of terms used and the various deviations in assumptions made by the writers who consider the issue. Lewis and Heckman further support their view by noting that the terms succession management, talent strategy and human resource planning are more often than not used interchangeably, all of which form an integral part of talent management functions. They believe that there is no clear view existing on talent management and none at all that can be considered as sufficiently strategic. As is evident, there are several approaches to talent management. One such approach identifies talent management with the traditional HR practices for instance recruitment, selection, training and performance management, among various other things (Cheese et al., 2008). This approach cannot be considered new as the traditional HR practices are becoming more decisive to a business success and hence, it is gradually getting imperative to associate such practices with the talents needed by the firms. Another varying approach towards talent management is firmly linked with the notion of HR planning, succession planning and strategic HR management (Rothwell Kazanas, 2004). These authors underscore and emphasize the strategic significance of talent management, whereas others stress upon the talent pools required for the succession planning. But this literature fall short in advancing the theory or practice of HR (Lewis Heckman, 2006). A third approach towards talent management caps on a rather general view by identifying talent management with concerns like leadership (Barner, 2006), talent pools (Michaels et al., 2001), an individuals potential (Smilansky, 2006), the development of talent (Fulmer Bleak, 2008) and the attraction and retention of personnel (Rueff Stringer, 2006). Understandably, none of the above-mentioned approaches to talent management is able to clearly define the concept of talent management or to highlight the ways of managing talent through comprehensive understanding of HR planning and practices. The third approach fails in being persuasive owing to its lack of focus and the plethora of topics covered under one head. Moreover, all these approaches overlook the strategic significance of talent management and hence, fall short of linking it with the overall business strategy thereby limiting the potential and scope of talent management and perceiving it as another HR domain. Another view deals with the task of talent management, â€Å"Talent Management is the recruitment, development and retention of individuals who consistently deliver superior performance.† (Tony Davis, 2007). The author further defines a talent management strategy as â€Å"a structured and corporate approach to the recruitment, retention and development of talented individuals within the organization.† The intent of a talent management strategy remains to ensure the employment of such personnel that will consistently deliver superior performance. The writer maintains that a talent management strategy is not an overtly intellectual concept as it is evident that highly skilled employees are expected to disproportionately contribute to an organizations successful achievement of goals and hence, become an invaluable asset in the process. The author inevitably agrees that it is a challenge to manage and retain a talented workforce and hence, terms it as a strategic issue whic h involves its own fair share of planning and execution. As per AndrÃÆ' ©s Hatum (2010), â€Å"Talent Management is a strategic activity aligned with the firms business strategy that aims to attract, develop and retain talented employees at each level of the organization.† Therefore, the talent management process is linked to an organizations business and strategic-planning processes. This approach emphasizes upon the most important aspect of talent management: the employees. The author further aligns talent management with the resource-based theory of the business which maintains that sustainable competitive advantage is in possession of the companies that nurtures resources that are valuable, rare and difficult to imitate. Talent Management is but a tool to generate and maintain such resources through its human capital. With such a view, the author has conveniently delineated the focus of talent management on the talent at the organizational level and not at the individual employee level. This definition therefore clearly defines how talent management can be used to develop an organizations talent structure by attracting, developing and training people. Such a talent structure can most definitely be the source of a sustainable competitive advantage in the current scenario. Talent Management is â€Å"a holistic approach to optimizing human capital, which enables an organization to drive short- and long-term results by building culture, engagement, capability, and capacity through integrated talent acquisition, development, and deployment processes that are aligned to business goals.†, (ASTD Research, 2009). The view focuses upon the consequences of employing talent management practices in the immediate as well as the distant future. Also, it supports talent management as being able to result in building and organizational culture that encompasses the essence of the work environment of a company. The definition also stresses upon the ability of employing talent management to enhance both the capacity and capability of individuals by appropriately matching them with the right job profile suiting their personalities. Furthermore, all such modules pertaining to talent management are to be designed keeping in view the ultimate goals of an organization thereby aligning it with the entire business strategy. Derek Stockley, (2011) defines talent management as, â€Å"A conscious, deliberate approach undertaken to attract, develop and retain people with the aptitude and abilities to meet current and future organizational needs.† He further states that â€Å"Talent management involves individual and organizational development in response to a changing and complex operating environment. It includes the creation and maintenance of a supportive, people oriented organization culture.† Derek aptly emphasizes upon the dynamic role of talent management in an ever-changing business atmosphere. The view aims at the function of talent management that leads to the development of healthy organizational culture within a business that considers the involvement of employees at a more active level. This view besides being consistent with others also, adds a new dimension to the scope of talent management thereby widening the applicability and functionality of the same. Another view maintains that â€Å"Talent Management is an oxymoron† (Davies Kourdi, 2010). The authors hold that linking talent to ‘management, a term that best describes planning, organizing, leading, directing, facilitating, and controlling a business; is absurd as talent is believed its own special ability and personal capacity for achievement. According to the writers, talent management was used first in early 1990s by an IT software firm that wanted to market a new employee database, hence, the view that talent management can be best believed to work with data and not with human capital and their potential. There are clearly several opinionated ideas of different authors on talent management. Whilst some associate it with the routine HR activity and processes and consider it as an extension to the faculty of human resource planning, others define such role as meager to the scope of talent management. They believe that limiting talent management to a specific domain is very much being unassuming and therefore, a proper sense is manifested in the term only when it is viewed as being appreciably strategically skewed. Under this dimension, the role of talent management can be considered as being fruitful in the present and the immediate future and both in the short-run and the long-run as well. 2.2 Importance of Talent Management in organizational success â€Å"Talent Management has become the lifeblood of organizations. It is often seen as a primary reason for organizational success and failure and the key source of competitive advantage.† (Silzer Dowell, 2010). The authors mutually agree that the business environment since the 1990s has been witness to several groundbreaking changes such as falling trade barriers and globalization of businesses worldwide. Such an expansion has led to increased demand for global talent which is needed to support these initiatives (Sloan, Hazucha Van Katwyk, 2003). This has further resulted in immense competition for the talent on a global scale (Michaels et al., 2001). Therefore, the ever-increasing demand for talent globally along with the widening scarcity of exceptional talent has made the organization realize both the importance and benefit of talent management practices. According to Ringo et al., (2008) as companies seek to overcome challenges coupled with globalization, changing workforce demographics and the emergence of new business models, they are looking forward to their employees as the critical source of differentiation in the market. The authors firmly believe in talent management practices and consent that investment in the same leads to an organization outperforming its peers. They also found through their research that high performing firms are more likely to invest in the talent management processes. They maintain that all organizations put into practice some form of talent management, without it they would be not capable to function. But at the same time, those that invest in an integrated set of talent management capabilities closely associated with their business strategy have a leg up against the competition. â€Å"No organization in todays economic climate can afford to invest in talent management practices without a demonstrable and significant return on investment† (Ringo et al., (2008). Organizations that are able outpace their competitors in attraction; development and retention of the best talent have a several distinct advantages: considerably lower costs, invariably higher productivity, consistently better quality, more satisfied and loyal customers, and increased financial performance (Schiemann, 2011). All such merits determine the critical path to on organizations success thereby chalking down talent management as the key driver in the entire phenomenon. Talent management, beyond any confusion, is crucial to organizational success. It can be easily considered equally important for innovation, customer satisfaction, profitability and new product development of the company (Management Study Guide, 2011). Talent and leadership continue to be inadequate. Fewer qualified personnel and leaders intend to join the workforce to replace aging workers who are on the verge of retirement. Moreover, talent management practices of the 20th century need to be relooked and worked upon to keep pace with the actuality of a rapidly varying 21st century business environment (ADP, 2010). Silzer Dowell (2010) further maintain that there are several other such factors that have contributed invariably to the growing importance of talent management in an organization: There is a widely increasing demand for talented leaders and individuals with growth of the emerging markets in the developing countries. There is an acute realization of shrinking pool of skilled, talented and experienced workforce, especially in USA, Europe and Japan. Besides, increasing complexity of global business and the emerging requirement for talented individuals that can effectively adapt to the changing business atmosphere further advocates the role of talent management in organization success. The growing need that specific organizational capabilities are needed for developing a sustainable competitive advantage in a highly competitive market and a rising call for recruitment and retention of highly skilled workers with specialized competence to build upon the future capabilities. And most importantly, the increased difficulty in retention of crucial talent as a result of a shift to a self-managed professional careers where skilled personnel aggressively pursue their careers and advancement by switching over different companies and geographic boundaries. Also, talent management has led to containment of internal costs of hiring, training and firing by focusing upon centralized shared services, outsourced functions and continual investment in the state-of-art HR practices of talent management that seeks internal hiring and retention. Talent management adds up to a number of significant human resources and management inventiveness (Derek Stockley, 2011). Organizations that properly make a decision to manage their talent (i.e. human capital) embark on a strategic analysis of their contemporary HR processes. This is to make certain that a synchronized, performance oriented approach is implemented. According to Derek Stockley (2011), most often than not, organizations adopting a talent management approach should focus on co-coordinating and incorporating, in order for it to be beneficial: Recruitment Under this the organization has to ensure that the right people are attracted to the right jobs matching their attitude and personality which will lead to â€Å"best job fit†. Retention Under which the focus lays on the development and implementation of such practices that reward and support employees. Employee development It is concerned with ensuring that incessant informal and formal learning and development continues within a firm. Leadership and high potential employee development This involves particular development programs for fostering the growth of existing and future leaders. Performance management This module primarily deals with specific processes that cultivate and sustain performance, including feedback and measurement mechanisms. Workforce planning The organization here undergoes planning for business and general variations, including the older workforce and current or future skills shortages. Culture This particularly deals with the development of a positive, progressive and high performance way of operating the processes and activities. A vital step is to recognize the personnel or workers, the people and positions that are significant to the business. It is not necessary that they need be senior personnel. Many companies lost a substantial amount of organizational knowledge in the downsizing exercises during recession a couple of years ago. The impact of the loss was not realized immediately. However, with time it became apparent to many firms their mistake, when the organizations were at a loss of people with the knowledge and skills to either anticipate or solve problems that arose. Therefore, talent management processes ensure the avoidance of such blunders by recognizing and assorting talented individuals in such a format that their real potential is unleashed and the organizations stand to gain from this. Derek further maintains that the current deliberations about skill shortages and the ageing population are also hugely forcing the organizations to focus on the talent management issue. At most of the times it becomes improbable to recruit and develop new individuals to look after the operational needs. Therefore, as a solution most of the leading firms often decide to develop and foster their own personnel, instead of making an attempt to hire highly skilled individuals. The author believes that every organization should implement talent management principles and approaches. The varied views on the importance of talent management in the organizational success all converge on a single theme that it is critical for the successful achievement of business goal and more so, in the competitive times such as these. They clearly throw light on the advantages and benefits that a firm can accrue from the efficient implementation of talent management processes and can bolster the business as well as its corporate culture. 2.3 Role of strategic planning, employee retention and employee commitment in talent management Strategic Planning The talent management approach should be strategically driven in order to be successful and effective (Silzer, Israel, Dowell, 2009). It then becomes the focus of achieving the business and talent strategy. The planning of talent management has to be done strategically in Discourse Community Analysis Draft: Die-Hard Sports Fans Discourse Community Analysis Draft: Die-Hard Sports Fans In one way or another, we have all been members of a discourse community at some point in our life. So, what is a discourse community? A discourse community is defined as a group of people involved in and communicating about a particular topic, issue, or in a particular field (Mohrenne). They share the same common goals and aspirations. It can be anything from the organizations you participate in at school, to the choir you sing with at school or church, and/or the groups or organizations you engage in at work or at home on a daily basis. According to Robert Mohrenne, John Swales suggests that a discourse community can be characterized by six distinguishing characteristics 1) a broadly agreed upon set of common public goals, 2) mechanisms of intercommunication among its members, 3) participatory mechanisms primarily to provide information and feedback, 4) one or more genres in the communicative furtherance of its aims, 5) some specific lexis, and 6) a threshold level of members with a suitable degree of relevant content and discoursal expertise (Mohrenne). A good example of a discourse community are die-hard sports fans. Die-hard sports fans fit the description of being a discourse community because they all have the common goals of wanting to see their team dominate other teams and displaying their loyalty for their team year after year. They faithfully follow their team throughout the entire year by supporting them through the good and bad times. Die-hard fans also watch every game, know specific stats about every player on the team, and know the language and signs players and referees use on every play. Die-hard fans do not care for fans who only ride the wave of the team when they are on a winning streak. They typically call these kind of fans bandwagoners because they are not passionate or committed to the overall goals of the community. In actuality, it is somewhat hard to call yourself a die-hard fan around true die-hard fans because they tend to question the loyalty of new comers especially if they know that the person supported other teams in the past. According to my dad, Mark Jefferson, a die-hard Pittsburg Steelers fan, a die-hard fan has a ride-or-die type of attitude for their team even if theyre having an 0 -14 season. He stated that he would never jump on another teams side regardless of how bad his team is doing because he knows their potential as a team and the skills of their players. In other words, die-hard fans can clearly distinguish bandwagoners from true die-hard fans based on interest level and knowledge of the team. Die-hard sports fans also use their own language to communicate with each other during games. For example, when die-hard sports fans are preparing for and/or watching their team play, they use social media and other forms of communication to communicate their respect and admiration for their team. They might text, call, tweet, post images on Instagram, or send messages on Facebook to express their thoughts and feelings about plays, calls that referees make, or their dislike for the opposing team. They also use these methods of communication to stay in touch with each other throughout the game they are watching and throughout the season. When a die-hard fan communicates with another die-hard fan, he or she will use the language of their community. They are typically loud, uses a lot of profanity, and are very aggressive. The language die-hard sports fans use to communicate is powerful because they have the ability to bring out the best in their team and other fans and in some instance s their language can upset fans from other teams. Along with using their own language within this discourse community, die-hard fans also have a specific lexis they use to show their undying loyalty and devotion to their team. For example, they wear team jerseys and other team paraphernalia to show their support all year long. Regardless if theyre sitting at a stadium in 20-degree weather, in the comforts of their home screaming at the television, or just going to pick up items from the grocery store, die-hard fans make sure others know that they are passionate about their team. Furthermore, this public display of loyalty also gives them the opportunity to dialog and form bonds with other die-hard fans regardless if they know the person or not. In conclusion, I think die-hard sports fans is a great example of a discourse community. Its members are commonly interested in their team defeating other teams. The members have an unexplainable passion for the team (s) and/or sport (s) they support season-after-season despite their wins or losses. This type of passion for sports is what distinguishes a new fan from a fan who has supported their team for years. They have a way of communicating with one another that is unlike any other form of communication when watching sports. As a member of a family of sports fanatics (especially football), I have seen and heard the enthusiasm on the faces and in the voices of several members from this discourse community. With that being said, I understand why being a die-hard sports fan can be considered a discourse community. Works Cited Jefferson, Mark. Personal interview. 8 March 2017. Mohrenne, Robert. English 1102-Composition II. University of Central Florida, Aug. 2013, https://webcourses.ucf.edu/courses/984277/pages/what-is-a-discourse-community. Accessed 10 March 2017.