Saturday, August 31, 2019
Arjun R. Sabhaya Production 529 Hamptonshire Express October 16, 2012 PROBLEM #1 A. The simulated function given in the Excel spreadsheet Ã¢â¬Å"Hamptonshire Express: Problem_#1Ã¢â¬ allows the user to find the optimal quantity of newspapers to be stocked at the newly formed Hamptonshire Express Daily Newspaper. Anna Sheen estimated the daily demand of newspapers to be on a normal standard distribution; stating that daily demand will have a mean of 500 newspapers per day with a standard deviation of 100 newspapers per day.Using the function provided, the optimal stocking quantity, which maximizes expected profit, is determined to be approximately 584 newspapers. If 584 newspapers were to be ordered, Hamptonshire Express will net an expected profit of $331. 436 per day with an expected fill rate of 98%. Any inventory ordered above 584 will produce a loss of profit due to stocking inventory over expected demand causing an imbalance between the gains and losses due to the respective o verage and underage costs. The table below outlines the optimal amount of daily expected profit.Profits rise until the 584 newspaper mark; any potential increase in quantity stocked will decrease daily expected profit for every newspaper ordered above 584. Stocking Quantity| Daily Expected Profit| 575 newspapers| 331. 323| 576 newspapers| 331. 347| 577 newspapers| 331. 369| 578 newspapers| 331. 387| 579 newspapers| 331. 403| 580 newspapers| 331. 415| 581 newspapers| 331. 425| 582 newspapers| 331. 431| 583 newspapers| 331. 435| 584 newspapers| 331. 436| 585 newspapers| 331. 435| 586 newspapers| 331. 430| 587 newspapers| 331. 423| 588 newspapers| 331. 413| 89 newspapers| 331. 400| 590 newspapers| 331. 385| Calculations: Cr=cu/cu+co where Cr= critical ratio. Cu=1-0. 2=. 8 Co=0. 2 Therefore, Cr= . 8/. 8+. 2=. 8 which is equal to . 84 (z value) on the standard normal distribution function table. To find the optimal stocking quantity that maximizes expected profit, we will use mean and st andard deviation in formula shown: Q=mean +z*(SD): 500+. 84*100=584. B. Using the Newsvendor Formula given, Q=? +? -1(Cu/Cu+Co )? , where: Q=optimal quantity ?= mean of expected demand ?= standard distribution of expected demand -1= the inverse of the standard normal distribution function Cu= underage costs (Sale price Ã¢â¬â cost), or ($1. 00-$0. 20) Co= overage costs (cost Ã¢â¬â salvage value), or ($0. 20 Ã¢â¬â $0), We can estimate the optimal stock quantity. The values allow us to input the z statistic, and the overage/underage costs in the given equation to derive the equation and answer shown below. The output of the Newsvendor equation, while different than the excel function (due to rounding error), is consistent with the optimal stocking quantity found by the Excel model. Q= 500+ (. 8601)-1*(. 80/. 80 + . 20) * 100 = 593. 1244 PROBLEM #2 A. The given simulation model in the Excel spreadsheet Ã¢â¬Å"Hamptonshire Express: Problem_#2Ã¢â¬ allows the user to find the o ptimal number of hours per day to be invested into creating the profile section to maximize expected profits for the Hamptonshire Express Daily Newspaper. Looking at the table below, Anna can spend 4 hours, where (H=4), Hours Spent (H)| Optimal Expected Profit| 2. 00| $367. 91| 2. 25| $368. 84| 2. 50| $369. 58| 2. 75| $370. 17| 3. 00| $370. 61| 3. 25| $370. 94| 3. 50| $371. 16| 3. 75| $371. 29| 4. 00| $371. 33| 4. 25| $371. 29| 4. 50| $371. 18| 4. 75| $371. 01| 5. 0| $370. 77| B. Anna SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of effort is at the point where the marginal cost of spending the extra time to develop the profile section = marginal benefit of spending the extra time to develop the profile section; or the point where profit is maximized. If she spends the extra time to develop the profile section past where marginal cost = marginal benefit, she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to create enough demand for her newspaper, but if she spends less time than where marginal cost = marginal benefit, she wonÃ¢â¬â ¢t have a quality newspaper and misses out on additional sales, which leads to increased profits.To find the optimal profit level, you would set $10 = to the marginal benefit, or: $10= ((0. 8 *50) / (2h)) and solve for H which = 4 hours. C. Using a table to compare the difference between problem #1 and problem #2, respectively, we can see the obvious differences between the optimal stocking quantity and daily expected profit figures. | Stocking Quantity| Daily Expected Profit| 1| 584| 331. 44| 2| 685| 371. 33| The stocking quantity and expected profits are higher in the second scenario because of the extra time spent to improve the quality of profile section.By spending the extra time to improve the profile section, Anna Sheen increased the overall quality of her newspaper, which will, most likely, lead to an increased probability of demand for her newspaper around the area. This increased demand will raise Anna SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s stocking quantity and the daily expected profits that a re associated with that individual stocking quantity. Problem #3 A. Assuming the number of hours Anna Sheen will spend developing the profile section will = 4; Ralph ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal stocking quantity is 516, as portrayed in the table below: Stocking Quantity| Daily Expected Profit| 513| 62. 131| 14| 62. 139| 515| 62. 143| 516| 62. 145| 517| 62. 144| 518| 62. 140| 519| 62. 133| 520| 62. 124| B. Ralph ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal stocking quantity is less than Anna SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s in Problem #2 due to the retailing extension of the supply chain. ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s overage cost ($0. 80; as he purchases them from Sheen minus $0 of salvage value) is higher than his underage cost ($0. 20; $1 sale price minus $0. 80 purchasing cost). Due to this, Armentrout has less room than Sheen for a profit margin making it a higher risk for him to carry a greater amount of inventory, which ultimately affects the fill rate of the supply chain.C. The optimal time spent to improve the quality of the profile section is determined by the table below: The profit Sheen will stand to make in the combined supply chain is optimal at 2. 25 hours spent per day. SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s profit rises with each 15 minute interval until 2 hours and 15 minutes is reached. The marginal benefit, from the additional time spent to improve the paper, will increase expected demand of newspaper, however, if too much time is spent, the marginal costs, associated with the additional time, will outweigh the associated marginal benefits.Expected demand is more resistant to high levels of time spent, basically, Sheen is hurting profits above 2. 25 hours spent per day on improvements. SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal amount of hours spent is lower, in this differentiated channel, as compared to Problem #2, due to SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s lower marginal benefit being received due to the split supply chain. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense for Sheen to spend more time to improve her newspaper if she has to split a percentage of the profits with Armentrout. Due to this, she will put less effort in and get more expectation of demand.D. Transfer P| Stocking Q| Profit| RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s P| AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s P| AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s E| Fill Rate| . 70| 510| 333| 104| 229. 38| 1. 563| 89%| .75| 501| 327| 81| 246. 64| 1. 891| 87%| .79| 493| 321| 62| 259. 11| 2. 176| 86%| .80| 491| 319| 57| 262. 10| 2. 25| 85%| .81| 488| 317| 53| 264. 42| 2. 326| 85%| .85| 478| 308| 34| 274. 29| 2. 641| 83%| .90| 459| 292| 11| 280. 68| 3. 063| 79%| If the transfer price, from Sheen to Armentrout, would decrease, Armentrout would ultimately gain a larger marginal benefit out of the purchasing deal with Sheen.Due to the increase of ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s profit margin, he would tend to stock more newspapers, which would increase the supply chainÃ¢â¬â¢s fill rate. However, this, in turn, would cause SheenÃ¢â¬â¢s profits, from the deal, to decrease and would ultimately lower her motivation to improve the newspaper, which leads to a decrease in expecte d demand and loss of potential profits. E. Efforts and stocking levels will be lower in a differentiated channel than in an integrated firm due to the multiple entities that are present in the supply chain.The multiple retailing and manufacturing entities, in the supply chain, allow the profits to be split by percentage rather than totaled to one firm who does both functions. Problem #4 A. The optimal stocking quantity for Armentrout, in this scenario, was determined to be 409 newspapers as shown by the table below: The optimal stocking quantity is lower at 409, in this scenario, as compared to 516 in Problem #3a. The optimal stocking quantity is lower, because Armentrout has an alternative to The Express with RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s Private Eye.B. The stocking quantity mainly differs from Problem #1, #2, and #3, because Armentrout underage costs have decreased, in this scenario, due to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s alternative to purchase Private when Express has a stock out to consumers. However, there are major differences that one should consider. The first two problems use an integrated point of view, as related to the supply chain, which allows for a higher optimal stocking quantity. On the other hand, Problems 3 and 4 use a differentiated channel.However, In Problem 3, while Armentrout tried to keep risk low by ordering a lower optimal stocking quantity, which was fueled by his low expected margins (due to his imbalanced underage and overage costs), ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal stocking quantity changes when Private is introduced into the mix. In Problem 4, Armentrout makes more profit on Private, but there is a lower expectation of demand for Private. Due to this, he must still stock Express to maximize profits. To demonstrate this phenomenon, which will ultimately decrease optimal stocking quantity, the new overage cost would have to be set. In the Problem 4 scenario, Co= $0. 0 Ã¢â¬â 40% * $0. 40 = $0. 16. The Newsvendor model will also allow one to arrive at these conclusions. C. ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s overage cost would increase by $. 03 to $. 83, while his underage costs would be $. 01. (New Express profit; $. 17 Ã¢â¬â New Private profit; $. 16) The imbalance would reduce the critical ratio, which would lead to a reduction of the optimal stocking quantity to a decently lower amount. Problem #5 A. The buy-back price initiative allows Sheen to drop ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s overage costs, which leads to an increase in his optimal stocking quantity and a win-win situation for Sheen and Armentrout.If Sheen would set the buy-back price at $. 75, this would maximize the total supply chainÃ¢â¬â¢s profits as shown in the table below. At $. 75, ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s optimal stocking quantity would be 659 newspapers. B. The combination of buy-back price and transfer price is roughly $1. 02 and $1. 025, respectively, as shown in the table below. The optimal level of expected profit is maximized when Sheen, the manufacturer, in this scenario, has a high expe cted profit margin, while Armentrout, the retailer, has a negative expected profit.Armentrout is basically a non-factor in this supply chain and allows this scenario to act as one integrated chain although technically it is differentiated. C. The fixed franchise fee would not be factored into ArmentroutÃ¢â¬â¢s overage and underage costs, so it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have an effect on his stocking decisions. If Sheen were able to impose a franchise fee to Armentrout, however, she would not have a reason to sell newspapers at all, since her profits would be coming from franchising rather than newspaper sales.Problem #6 A. The Ã¢â¬Å"VMIÃ¢â¬ plan would allow Sheen to be able to establish the optimal levels of effort and allow her to set the optimal stocking quantity in relation to her maximizing the difference between her marginal benefits and her marginal costs; basically she is in control of the stocking decision rights of the Express to maximize total profits. Since she has control ov er stocking quantity, Armentrout could not make much of a profit using a differentiated supply chain model.However, due to proposed slotting allowance, Armentrout has the ability to make more of a profit than he would have battling against Sheen for stocking rights of the Express, if he would go for more of an integrated model and allow Sheen to control the Express. B. Since Armentrout would not care about sales directly (due to him collecting a slotting fee regardless of a sale or not), under the VMI plan versus the differentiated model, Armentrout might lose potential sales he might have gotten if he had a say in the daily stocking quantity of the Express.If Armentrout had the chance to make a potential profit off of the consumers, he might try harder to pay attention to demand. Because of this reality of manufacturer versus retailer, Sheen might not understand the local demand of the area as well as Armentrout, due to him being the Ã¢â¬Å"ground level retailerÃ¢â¬ and witnessi ng the subtle changes in daily demand.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Dry. Brown Turtle Creek Casino and Hotel Background Turtle Creek Casino and Hotel is a nonprofit organization that has owned and operated by the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians. Turtle Creek Casino is located 4 miles east of Traverse City on M-72 in Williamsburg, Michigan and Is open 7 day a week, 24 hours a day. The casino has affiliation with the Grand Traverse Resort and the Leland Sand Casino. The casino provides hospitality and entertainment to its patrons though the gambling establishment.This casino was one of the first casinos owned by a tribe of Indians In the United States. In 2008, the casino built an echo-friendly building that Is 74,000 square feet, which houses 54,000 square foot gaming floor including 1,300 slots, 40 table games, poker room, two gift shops, fitness center, three restaurants, SIX bars, 137 guest rooms Including 10 suites + 2 hospitality parlors (Designation, 2009). The Human Resource Department consist of the personnel director, compe nsation and benefits manager, benefits clerk, employee relations manager, records coordinator, training specialist, and Interviewer.The casino employs over 3000 personnel to run effective and efficiently. Employee Selection Descriptors Equal opportunity employers do not discriminate against individuals because of race jobs to potential employee's base on qualifications and character. OWE Statement The casino is an equal opportunity employer which applies through every aspect of the employment relationship, including, but not limited to, recruitment, selection, placement, training, compensation, promotion, transfer, termination, and all other matters of employment with the exception of tribal preference. Traverse Band ofOttawa and Chippewa Indians, is committed to achieving full and equal opportunity without discrimination because of race, religion, color, gender, national origin, age, physical or mental ability, or sexual orientation. Qualified American Indians are encouraged to app ly. Affirmative Action Affirmative Action Policy Turtle Creek Casino will take affirmative measures to ensure that persons with disabilities are recruited and employed at all levels of its work force and treated during employment without regard to their disability but, Indian persons are to be given preference in employment.In achieving the specific goals set forth in this plan, Tribal members are given primary preference, and other Indians are given preference over non-landing. Such affirmative efforts shall, without limitation, address all employment practices including: employment, promotion, demotion or transfer; recruitment, recruitment advertising or posting; layoff or termination; rates of pay or other forms of compensation or benefits; and selection for training programs.Shall send notices of employment openings and solicit the referral of qualified candidates for employment from: organizations which serve the interest of promoting equal employment opportunity for persons wi th disabilities and regional Job banks or Job fairs that are maintained or conducted in order to assist qualified persons with disabilities in obtaining employment.Shall send to each labor union or representative of workers with which it has a collective bargaining agreement a notice of the obligations of the applicant or licensee under the Act and rules of the Commission and a request for referral of qualified candidates for employment who are voluntarily self-identified persons with disabilities; an disabilities. Recruiting Methodology The employee selection process starts with posting all open position in the time card and break room areas for internal employees to view and apply.In addition, tribal members and Indian if experience and train are given the first pick at any open position. If no internal interest is shown then the position is posted on career Job boards and the casinos website. Open Positions They initially post all employment openings for response by qualified in- house employees or, when appropriate, advertise such openings in newspapers of general circulation and other media which reach across-section of the population in the area room which the work force will be drawn.Step one-Each position posted is accompanied Job description, list of qualifications, and an expiration date to apply; tribal date is usually two days prior to all other applicants. Step Two-elf there are no applications. Step Three-After that date, the position is posted on their web site, and external applicants for that specific Job are taken and evaluated. Phone interview are conducted with all external applicant and are per-qualified. Recruiting Process Process for internal recruitment LEVEL ONE Ã¢â¬â Managers, supervisors, or other key employees.People who have authority to develop or administer policy, long-range plans, or to make discretionary decisions regulating gaming operations; people responsible for major sections within the casino or its property, even if n o gaming is conducted in the area (such as a hotel or restaurant). In addition, some employees of Suppliers will be required to be licensed. LEVEL TWO Ã¢â¬â Employees who operate or maintain casino games, or who come in contact with gaming money, chips, tokens, credit slips, etc. But who are not supervisors. LEVEL THREE Ã¢â¬â Employees who work in an area where gaming is inducted, or in areas that directly affect gaming, but do not conduct the games or come in contact with gaming money, chips, tokens, credit slips, etc. (Casino Employees/Occupational Licenses, 2011). Process for external recruitment A person seeking a Tribal gaming employee license shall submit an application to the Tribal Commission on such form and in such manner as the Tribal Commission may require.Such application shall include the following information: (1) The applicant's name, including all other names used current home and work addresses and telephone numbers, social security number, place of birth, da te of earth, citizenship, and driver's license number, as well as the address of his or her personal residences over the past five (5) years. If the applicant has resided at his or her current address for less than two (2) years, his or her previous address. 2) The name, address and telephone number of the gaming facility and of the gaming operator for whom the applicant intends to work and the specific location in which the applicant will be employed. (3) The name and Job description of the applicant's position. (4) The names and addresses of the applicant's living parents, grandparents, spouse, children, brothers, and sisters. 5) A statement as to whether or not the applicant has ever been charged with a crime, and if so, the charge, the name and address of the court involved, the applicant's explanation of the outcome of the case, including the date of final disposition. 6) The names, current addresses and telephone numbers of three references who are not related to the applicant and who were acquainted with the applicant when the applicant was residing at each of the addresses listed in (7) A list of the applicant's previous Jobs over the preceding five years, including the name, address and telephone number of his or her employer, and the position held. 8) The names and addresses and a brief description of all businesses in which the applicant currently holds, or has within the last five years held, an ownership interest. 9) A description of any previous employment relationship with an Indian Tribe, including the employee position held, name of the Tribe involved and name and address of a person who can attest to the accuracy of the information provided. (10) A description of any current or past non- employee business arrangement which the applicant has had with an Indian Tribe, including the name of the Tribe involved and the name and address of a person who an attest to the accuracy of the information provided. (11) A statement as to any gaming business .If so, the applicant shall provide a written statement describing his or her position, the dates during which that position was held, a description of the applicant's ownership interest or Job responsibilities and the name, address and phone number of the business, and a person who can attest to the accuracy of the information provided. (12) A list of all gaming-related licenses the individual has ever applied for, whether or not those licenses were granted and the name and address ND phone number of the regulatory agency involved. 13) A list of all professional or business licenses the applicant has applied for, whether or not those licenses were granted and the name, address and phone number of the regulatory agency involved. (14) A statement of all languages written or spoken. (15) A sworn statement that neither the applicant nor any member of his immediate family has a past or current financial interest, other than a salary interest, in any gaming-related enterprise anywhere. I f the applicant has any immediate family member who has such an interest, that applicant shall fully disclose that family ember's name and the nature of the interest.For the purposes of this subsection, Ã¢â¬Å"family memberÃ¢â¬ shall include a mother, father, husband, wife, sister, brother [natural or adopted], son or daughter [natural or adopted]. (16) Written permission giving the Tribal Commission or its designed the right to investigate the applicant's background, including his criminal record, civil and criminal Judgments and credit history. (17) A complete disclosure of any pending or anticipated civil or criminal action against the applicant, including the name and address of the police department and court involved. 8) A disclosure of any civil or criminal Judgments rendered against the applicant, including the case number, a description of the judgment and the name and address of the court involved. (19) The applicant's fingerprints will be taken by GET Tribal Police, wh o are responsible for conducting this portion of the applicant's criminal history check and forwarding the fingerprint cards to the NIGH for processing through the FBI. (20) Any other information which might bring into question his fitness to serve as a primary management official or key employee off licensed gaming operation. C) Each application shall be accompanied y a sworn statement that the applicant will submit to the Jurisdiction of the Tribe and the Tribal Court. Employment Status Independent Contractors Turtle Creek Casino uses many various forms of subcontract labor, these are laborer that are not actually employees, but supply the casino with product or service to the casino. All landscaping, new construction, and many vendors that are not employees of the casino, but they assist in the operations of the casino.Countryside Construction Company Just completed builds the new casino. Full-time Employee Full-time Employee status at the casino is reserved for executives, manag ement and rear supervisors, and are required to work 40 plus hours.. A work week consists of seven (7) consecutive twenty-four (24)-hour periods, I. E. , one hundred and sixty-eight (168) consecutive hours, designated by the business needs of the respective divisions of the casino. Full time employees are salaried at the casino. A) All executive, administrative, and professional employees of the casino gaming operations are primary management duty and regularly direct the work of two or more employees or have the authority to hire, fire, or promote employees. (c) Administrative employees o office work or non-manual work directly related to management operations. (d) Professional employees do work that requires advanced training. Part time and Seasonal Employee All other employees are consider part time for the first two years of employment, this means that they can work 32 or less hours on a regular bases but not for more than 5 consecutive weeks.Seasonal or temporary employees are used for special events or outdoor concert. Training and Development Training Strategy All employees have monthly online training for current and advancing positions. Once training for advancing positions are completed internal employees can be insider candidate for advance position. Once the two year part time status has been complete internal employees can apply for full time positions. Full time employees are considered to be new employee trainer. Once a new employee is trained the trainer sits down with the area supervisor and discusses the new employee's strength and weaknesses.New Employee Schedule and Training process includes: First week- Report to department complete all required online training to include safety and customer relation training. Second week-Report to department complete specialized training for your position. Third and fourth- Report to department omelet shadow training with fellow employee. Fifth week- Report to department and probation period is over. Deve lopment Strategy employee's strength and weaknesses. The advancing employee then assumes their new training for the advance position.The development of employees ensures employee satisfaction and progression of employee in the casino. Compensation and Benefits Objective Turtle Creek Casino compensation program requires input from the employees; they fellow employee on a by annually. This audit is taken is to consideration and tell the employer what may be lacking or is not need in their compensation packages. Alignment Competitiveness Key position and executive pay is at the higher level, includes yearly increase, health insurance and bonus packages based on company sale in the form of profit sharing.All full time and part time employees are set at the medium rate of pay, health insurance, and also received bonus pay for training new employees. When the full time employees are not training they are paid at a reduced rate because of receiving tips. The lower rate of pay is for season al or temporary employees with no benefits, but tips . To stay competitive the casino does abide by the minimum wage rate even Hough they do not have to abide by labor laws. Tips are dividing up according to groups. Each group has its own collection area the hotel, hospitality, gaming and bar make up these groups.Tips are split according to how much was made in each area. Once a month the tips are distributed to the employees. This ensures the customers of the casino receive great service. Appraisal Purposes Turtle Creek requires performance review to get feedback on how the employee feels about the company as well and how the company views the employee future with the company. Ã¢â¬Å"If it's done right, performance appraisals tell us who's a good candidate for rumination and who's properly placed in their current Job (and who's in over his headÃ¢â¬ ¦ )Ã¢â¬ (Grove, 2011). Feedback from all parties is required to be successful.Process Turtle Creek Casino require managers and supe rvisor to due appraisal for their employees on a semi- annual bases, this is for all part time and full time employees. As part of the ongoing online training all manger must complete a section on appraisal analysis. The casino finds it important because employee satisfaction reflects highly on the hospitality that they give their customers. They survey the employees at that time and address complaints. If the employee is not happy then they will cross train or relocate the employees to different position at that time.Full time employee that are train new employees are receiving appraisal training after training new employees when reporting status to the supervisors and managers. This keep record and employees updated of the status of the employee. Laws Turtle Creek Casino does not have to abide by federal or state labor laws, because they are covered under the Indian Reorganization Act, 1934. This act made is so the Indian race a sovereignty nation within self and its own governmen t. Tribal law does retentions of their race. Congress has specifically exempted tribes from several familiar employment laws.A tribal law has adopted similar laws against discrimination, harassment and violence to provide a safe work place for their employees. Even though tribal law does not require them to abide by these this act they enforce, VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 affirmative action was designed to counteract the lingering effects of generations of past discrimination. The main criteria for inclusion in affirmative action programs are race, sex, ethnic origin, religion, disability, and age (Webster, 2013). Supreme Court has determined that states have no authority to regulate conduct by the tribes unless specifically authorized by Congress.Congress has specifically exempted tribes from several familiar employment laws. Ordinarily, tribal court has primary Jurisdiction over claims arising from commercial transactions with the tribe, including employment. Employees are required to re-sign authorization form to do background check on appraisal dates (Beet, 2004). Even though it is not necessary to have background check completed yearly the casino requires them to make sure that are employees maintain their gambling license and that there are no legal issue, preventive measure. Reference Beet, 2004.
China and Russia had various similarities and differences during the early 20th century. They were different in the aspect of goals as Russia was highly concerned in making everyone literate to experience the works of Marx, Lenin and Stalin personally while neither the Chinese communist party nor the Kuomintang cared much about literacy for the masses. Another differences was the characterization of the Russian revolution by World war 1 leading to the revolt against a ruling Tsar while China, was not affected by the war was more of a civil war between the nationalists and MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s peasants.Even so, both nations ended up with Communist revolutions, following the proletariat ruling belief. During the early 20th century, the Russian revolutionaries wanted all its people to be literate as to experience by reading the works of Karl Marx, Lenin and Stain first hand. Overall they were very successful in increasing the literacy rate in general. This was possible because immediately after the revolution, education was greatly overhauled in the spending on popular education.Free eduction was ordered for all children from the ages of three to sixteen years old as well as the duplication of schools within the first two years. Coeducation was also imposed as to get rid of sex discrimination and for the welfare of the whole society. However in China, the revolution did not really care about teaching and education for their citizens but rather focused primarily on replacing the existing system of government and its ruler with one headed up by the leader of the revolution, Mao Ze Dong.Another difference between the Russian and Chinese revolution was that the Russian revolution was influenced a lot by the first world war, while the Chinese revolution was untouched by it and still fought for the same beliefs as the Russian revolution. The Russian revolution was highlighted by the overthrow of Nicholas II which was brought on by the end of the first world war. Differently, th e Chinese revolution was not affected by the first world war and was sparked by the Marxist ideas of the working class being able to rule.Even though the first world war was not a cause of the revolution, Mao Ze DongÃ¢â¬â¢s peasant army and Chiang KaiÃ¢â¬â¢s nationalist army still fought until MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s forces defeated the nationalists in 1949. The major similarity between the Russian revolution and the Chinese revolution would be that both revolutions made the path for the nations to become Communists. They were both led by charismatic leaders Lenin and Mao Ze Dong, who were able to unite the people into the revolution.Both had similar goals and outcomes as they both aimed for the working class, Proletariats, to rule against the ruling class. Both revolutions also aimed to establishing a state ownership in their countries as well as removing any kind of inequalities within the nation. Both ending up as communist nations, the Russian revolution and the Chinese revolution were shaped by different sparks and aimed to reach its goals through different methods but strived for a similar goal inspired by the Marxist ideas of the Proletariat class to rule.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Question is in the instruction box - Essay Example This is so because since the end of colonialism many countries and states have become less and less influenced from European countries and any external forces of other governments, leaving countries to determine their own fate through controlling their internal activities and affairs. Therefore, the traditional perspective of nations monopolizing their exercise of powers over the territory and the citizens within its boundary has been discredited as the perfect definition of sovereignty, since modernity demands for a more liberal approach to governance. Thus, with the end of colonialism and the advent of the concept of modernity, sovereignty has emerged to focus on the rights of the citizens within a country, as opposed to the rights of the nation-state or government, over its territories and its subjects 2. Sovereignty under modernity now refers to the rights of the people to access and use the natural resources within their country, without any undue interference with that right fr om either the government of the land or even the foreign powers. Since the end of colonialism, most of the foreign interrelationships are based on commercial, social, political and other cultural activities, which are based on the mutual respect and understanding amongst the member countries2. Thus, the traditional relationship between countries, which was based on the dominance of some countries over others has been replaced by the commercial relationship between such countries, where investors from different other countries can invest within a country where they find ample business opportunities3. However, the right to the access of the natural resources is primarily given to the citizens of the country, who have the rights to access and exploit the natural resources that are bestowed within their regions of jurisdiction, thus making the rights over the natural resources a matter of sovereignty for the people, as opposed to the powers of the governments to exercise its authority o ver the people. Therefore, the modern concept of sovereignty is defined in terms of the rights that the people within a country have access to the natural resources and their application for their benefits, as opposed to the application of such resources to benefit other external forces, at the expense of the people of the country within which the resources are bestowed. Therefore, the principle of sovereignty over natural resources now requires that such resources shall be applied towards the interest of national development, and the well-being of the people of the countries that has such resources 4. The principle of sovereignty over natural resources, which came about as a result of the concept of modernity started in the period after World War II, when the countries realized that the freedom of other countries from interference by others in the conduct of their internal affairs, was vital and essential for the peaceful co-existence of countries in the world3. The first aspect to wards the establishment of the concept of sovereignty started with the establishment of the United Nations, which sought to enhance democracy in the world, through ensuring the non-interference in the affairs of one country by the others, where such interference is unnecessary, or where the interference is likely to interfere with the rights and freedoms of the country to govern itself without any undue interference 9. With the
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Classroom Observation - Essay Example While Anthony does not seem to show academic delay, his behavior is indicative of nonsocial activity, suggesting that he is either very shy, or unsure of himself in a social setting. His lack of interaction indicates that either he is particularly in tune with a certain task, or has been rejected by the peer groups in his classroom, which leave him particularly subject to ridicule. During the observation, he seemed to actively avoid participating in group activities, remaining alone. John Watson suggests that children are easy conditioned to certain behaviors (Berk 18). Because Anthony has been rejected by his peer group, it is plausible that he has learned that his attempts to be a part of the group will only draw ridicule, teaching him to remain alone. I found this particular child very frustrating, since, in spite of any efforts, he refused to work with his peers. Conner, on the other hand, is very much a part of the social group in the classroom. He is friendly and polite; he fol lows classroom rules, and is a very hard worker. He seems very well adjusted to the classroom setting, and is comfortable interacting with his peers as both a member of a group and as a leader. Conner listens carefully to the teacher, and mimics what she does exactly. Conner seems both happy, and at home with the responsibilities of the classroom. Because Conner works so hard to imitate the teacher, and to follow directions carefully, he appears to be a model for social learning theory (Berk 18). Every time he imitates the teacher, or does what he is asked, he is rewarded for the behavior with praise. He has therefore learned that doing as told in the classroom will bring positive outcomes, which he desires. I can only imagine how wonderful it would be to have an entire classroom of Conners! He was so hardworking and well mannered; it made the class environment much more pleasant. Dhruv, another child in the class, was a very different matter. He was uninterested in being involved i n the classroom, and refused to do his assignments. During table work activities, he chose to daydream, or draw pictures, instead of doing his work. His unwillingness to work made it difficult for the teacher, and for the students around him to concentrate. Dhruv, beyond showing a lack of interest in the classroom, appears uncomfortable with his surroundings. Vygotsky suggests that children learn similarly to how Piaget suggested, with an emphasis on the social interaction, and receiving tasks of increasing difficulties from their peers (Berk 26). Because Dhruv seems secluded from his peers and has difficulty with language, it is likely that he has not been presented with enough challenges to prepare him for the classroom situation. This lack of interest is frustrating for both himself and for his teacher, and I worry about his future in academics. Eric is a different subject altogether. His behavior in the classroom is completely unacceptable. He talks loudly and interrupts others during conversations and instructions. He sleeps during class, and refuses to follow classroom rules. He is mean to the other children and does not understand social conventions.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
MNE should stop outsourcing to developing countries 2 - Assignment Example It is, therefore, the nature of human beings to be curious as the people were in the story. The story is a satirical piece, which the writer uses to mock human nature in general, and the Catholic Church. Criticism is seen from the father and the letter, which he sends to his superiors in Rome (382). The superiors do not look interested in coming to view the spectacle. Father Gonzaga is asked to talk to the Old man and see if his dialect is Aramaic. The superiors also ask Father Gonzaga to see how many times would fit in the head of a pin. This is an example of Catholicism, which refers to the medieval theory that was thought to be proof of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s omnipotence. The superiors in the Catholic Church finally make a conclusion that the old man is a Norwegian sailor who is stranded. This statement makes the church sound literal minded and not in touch with reality. The church is also seen to have a wait and see tactic, as they do not do anything about the old man with enormous wings. They just wait until the end when the man flies off. They leave the man in PelayoÃ¢â¬â¢s compound while they could have taken the man in their refuge so that they could find out everything about him. Human beings in the short story by Gabriel Garcia Marquez do not care about the significance of life (384). Everyone in the story is afflicted by narrowness of vision. This is seen from the church to the neighbor woman, the pilgrims, and the crowd of onlookers. Elisenda is also viewed to be narrow as she chooses to keep her living room and kitchen living free instead of deciding to consider her uninvited guest who was different from them and oddly beautiful. Regret is also considered as part of human nature by the writer of the story. When Elisenda looks at the angel at the end of the story and realizes that she would probably never have a chance of seeing him again, regret is clearly depicted. The writer points out that most people
Monday, August 26, 2019
Law - Essay Example istinguish the state from other legal and non-legal entities; it shall explore the differences between recognizing a state and recognizing the government of a state; it shall also discuss the practical effects of the fact that only some states recognize KosovoÃ¢â¬â¢s statehood; it shall explore the two theoretical underpinnings of the statehood theory-the declaratory and constitutive theories; and discuss the alternatives to a state-based model in public international law and how these manifest in practice. There are various reasons why the United Kingdom recognizes Kosovo as a state, but does not recognize Kurdistan, the Palestinian Authority Area, or the Antarctica as states. These reasons are very much founded on the basic tenets of public international law and on how the latter defines a Ã¢â¬ËstateÃ¢â¬â¢. State is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an isolated, static phenomenon on the basis of its constituent elementsÃ¢â¬ 1. The elements of a state are set under different conventions and treaties that now comprise the bulk of our international laws. The main and primary convention in defining the elements of a state is the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States which entered into force on December 1934. This convention laid down the elements of a state, which are: Ã¢â¬Å"(a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other statesÃ¢â¬ 2. Two of the elements (territory and population) of a state comprise its physical characteristics. In order for an entity to be considered a state, it should have control over the territory it claims as its own. A defined territory implies boundaries which are laid in accordance with international laws. Ã¢â¬Å"It includes the air space above the landÃ¢â¬ ¦and the earth beneath it, in theory, reaching to the globeÃ¢â¬ 3. This defined territory also includes up to twelve miles of territorial sea which is adjacent to the coast. Maritime jurisdiction, which is part of
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Company Law - Essay Example The factual scenario raises various issues in company law relating to the legality of proposed transactions. With regard to the proposed transactions and dissatisfaction of Ergan,Arif and Moshe as minority shareholders in the actions of Pedro and Morgan;this initially raises issues of breach of directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ duties under the Companies Act 2006. Section 171 of the Companies Act 2006 (CA) provides that Ã¢â¬Å"a director of a company must- a) act in accordance with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution, and b) only exercise powers for the purposes for which they are conferredÃ¢â¬ (CA). Section 175 of the CA further imposes a positive obligation on directors to Ã¢â¬Å"avoid a situation in which he has, or can have, a direct or indirect interest that conflicts, or possibly may conflict, with the interests of the companyÃ¢â¬ (Section 175 of the CA). If we apply this by analogy to the current scenario, it is evident that Pedro and Morgan have awarded themselves pay increases despite t he fact the company is making marginal profits. As such, this would suggest a conflict of interest with the interest of the company. Moreover, the common law and equity impose duties on directors and section 179 of the CA expressly states that Ã¢â¬Å"the consequences of any breachÃ¢â¬ ¦ of sections 171 to 177 are the same as would apply if the corresponding common law rule or equitable principle appliedÃ¢â¬ .... k v Deeks ( 1 AC 554) asserted that directors cannot take advantage of an opportunity or information that belongs to the company without prior approval of the company. The common law fiduciary duty is further bolstered by the provisions of the Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986, where the courts can disqualify directors whose companies have failed as a direct result of their misconduct for periods up to 15 years. Moreover, under section 172 of the CA, there is a new duty deriving from the equitable fiduciary duty principle expressed as a duty to promote the success of the company. To this end, Section 172(1) sets out a non-exhaustive list of guidelines that directors should refer to including (without limitation) the relationship with suppliers and customers, impact of decision on environment and members of the company. It is important to ensure compliance with this and failure to comply cannot only result in exposing the company to potential claims, but can also lead to piercing of the corporate veil for potential actions against the director (Wild, 2009). Furthermore, section 173 of the CA 2006 imposes a positive duty on a director of a company to exercise independent judgment. Section 174(1) sets out the common law duty of care and skill and section 174(2) sets out an objective test similar to the dual obligations test extrapolated under section 214 of the Insolvency Act 1986 in relation to the wrongful trading provisions. In context of the current scenario, this will have a bearing in relation to the concerns regarding the sale of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s property at undervalue. Firstly, it is evident that the proposed sale of the company property must be in the best interests of the company under Section 172 of the CA 2006. If the sale at undervalue is not
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Instructional Strategies Concept - Research Paper Example He agreed to work with Dr. Cynthia for designing an instructional material with a list of suggestions and delivery method of the same. However, according to the study, Clifford, the experienced instruction designer found Dr. Cynthia to be his toughest client in his career. He faced a number of difficulties in designing the material and till date he has not been able to complete any normal ID task of his (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). Challenges faced by the instructional designers Clifford lacked the essential data of learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics, which is the most important information an instruction designer needs to develop the pattern of instruction (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). Most designers put stress on learners and learning outcomes prior to the designing of instruction. The learning process complexities and several critical human dimensions are required to be understood by designers which come into play. Learners carry a wealth of experiences and traits with them to a training setting or education that play a significant part in measuring the success of the instruction. It also includes normal profile factors that tell about the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ background, capability and several attitudinal factors. Many of these factors have notable impacts on the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to learn. A basket of prerequisite skills and knowledge are also brought by the learners to the instructional setting. These entry skills are highly related to the content of a particular instructional experience (Richey, James, Klein, and Tracey, 2010. p.170). The second problem faced by Clifford was regarding contextual analysis. In spite of having four meetings with Oakes, Clifford could not gather the necessary important information that could help him during contextual analysis (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). Contextual analysis plays a key role in designing and developing instructions for learning. Instructional context provides rich data about real world scenario and examples. There are few reasons that necessitate analysis of context. First, every aspect of the leaning experiences is influenced by context. Second, Context as a collection of factors can facilitate or inhibit instruction and learning. Third, multiple contexts can be required a by single classroom. For example, sixth grade students might need to do survey in neighboring historical buildings, do research in computer lab and in historic society and arrange a meeting in a hallway in a pro blem based learning approach. An instructional designer should analyze three types of contexts. They are orienting context where learner is focused primarily, instructional context that suggests about the scheduling and physical environment of the training and another is transfer context, which enables the opportunities for transferring the skills and knowledge to new situations (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp, 2011, pp.65-66). Although Clifford did have his notes and resources from the four meetings with Oaks, but it just did seem remotely related to his assignment (Ertmer and Cennamo, n.d.). As a result, he could not create an objective domain. Objective domains are classifications or categories of objectives that helps instructional designers for determining several important elements of design. There are four domains of objective such as, cognitive, affective, psychomotor and interpersonal. These help designers to determine how to structure evaluations, objectives and delivery system. For an example, an instructional designer was working on training system for technicians for repairing a certain type of computer. It might require usage all the four domains. Such as,
Friday, August 23, 2019
Business Information Systems - Essay Example Data and information are critical components of information systems that utilized by firms. The innovation of information systems has enabled commerce to thrive since it allows organizations to be cost-effective, gain competitive edge, and efficient in their industry. Hence, the usage of information has drastically been enhanced since the advent of systems design. One cannot understand the importance of information systems without comprehending what actually an information systems. An information system is a collaborative effort that strives to connect people, network, software, hardware, and data in order to facilitate the daily operations of a business (Foulds, 2006, p. 9). There are many types of information systems that consist of: manual, informal, formal, and computer-based. Information systems in essence give valuable data to organizations that can be given evaluated upon, analyzed, and enhance the value of the key goals that the organization possesses (Nocera, 2007, p. 9). In formation Systems are important because establishing a foundation for responsible use of technology. Managing information systems stems from internetwork enterprises. Hence, the field of information systems has become critical aspects of business administration. One of the key innovations that business professionals implement is an IS Framework (Pradhan, 2010, p. 13). IS Framework is used by business professionals who need to gain competitive strategies (Pradhan, 2010, p. 14). Thus, this competitive advantage allows firms to be cost-effective by becoming cost leaders. A primary example of a company that uses IS Framework is Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart excels in providing products and services at a very low competitive price. In addition, IS Framework allows businesses to be headfirst as the leader in technology as synchronization of software and data management of customer information (Pradhan, 2010, p. 17). Likewise, the IS framework allows businesses to communicate the whole supply managem ent that is heavily associated with the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands. For instance, the order to cash process in a business requires several steps (Pradhan, 2010, p. 20). When the customer places the order, the sales order department requires credit approval from the credit department. The credit department then informs the sales order department disposition of credit request. At these stages, the use of technology is extensive (Cameron, 2009, p. 7). The credit and sales department can use of point-of-sale technologies to scan the barcode of products. In addition, the innovation of technologies can use barcodes to process the order (Cameron, 2009, p. 10). Next, sales order department acknowledges customer order notifies warehouse, revenue collection process, and payroll process. In essence, it each step of the horizontal information flows consists of heavy utilization of technology (Cameron, 2009, p. 11). Another key issue that information systems addressed was an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s problems regarding differentiation. Prior to the introduction of these systems, few companies possessed the ability to deliver different products and services (Foulds, 2006, p. 10). With the help of automation systems as the result of information systems, companies were able to customize products based on customer needs. Companies were able to take prototypes and then enhance the functionality features due to high levels of customization that systems had to offer (Foulds, 2006, p. 11). This idea was essentially non-existent, but was quickly
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Disease Causation - Essay Example The causes of the condition involves persons who smoke, people with high blood pressure, high cholesterol body levels and those suffering from diabetes. Risk factors for developing the condition depend on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s age, medical condition, gender and their lifestyle choices. Most individuals especially men just like Steve are prone to acquiring the condition past the age of 50 years (Lockhart et al., 2012). Other risk factors for acquiring the condition includes diabetes, cigarette smoking, overweight and obese individuals, hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels and persons who have a history of a heart disease in the family. In regards to the information, Steve is at a great risk of acquiring the condition. Since he is overweight and lives a sedimentary life lacking any physical exercise. He is a smoker, he is also at a risk of acquiring diabetes, hypertension or a heart disease since there is a history of these chronic illnesses that are genetic (Fowkes et al., 20 13). Moreover, his blood pressure is high as it is above the normal range. Fowkes, F. G. R., Rudan, D., Rudan, I., Aboyans, V., Denenberg, J. O., McDermott, M. M., ... & Criqui, M. H. (2013). Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis.Ã The Lancet,Ã 382(9901), 1329-1340. Jauch, E. C., Saver, J. L., Adams Jr, H. P., Bruno, A., Connors, J. J., Demaerschalk, B. M., ... & Yonas, H. (2013). on behalf of the American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.Ã Stroke,Ã 44(3), 870-947. Lockhart, P. B., Bolger, A. F., Papapanou, P. N., Osinbowale, O., Trevisan, M., Levison, M. E., ... & Baddour, L. M.
Socialism in Russia Essay Socialism has its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. The Communist Manifesto was written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 just before the Revolutions of 1848 swept Europe, expressing what they termed scientific socialism. In the last third of the 19th century in Europe social democratic parties arose in Europe drawing mainly from Marxism. The Australian Labor Party was the worlds first elected socialist party. In 1903, the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party began to split on ideological and organizational questions into Bolshevik (Majority) and Menshevik (Minority) factions, with Russian revolutionary Vladimir Lenin leading the more radical Bolsheviks. Both wings accepted that Russia was an economically backward country unripe for socialism. The Mensheviks awaited the capitalist revolution in Russia. But Lenin argued that a revolution of the workers and peasants would achieve this task. After the Russian revolution of 1905, Leon Trotsky argued that unlike the French revolution of 1789 and the European Revolutions of 1848 against absolutism, the capitalist class would never organize a revolution in Russia to overthrow absolutism, and that this task fell to the working class who, liberating the peasantry from their feudal yoke, would then immediately pass on to the socialist tasks and seek a permanent revolution to achieve international socialism. Nationalist tried to create regional self-government for the Assyrian people with the socialist ideology. He even wrote the Uremia Manifesto of the United Free Assyria. However, his attempt was put to an end
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Input Subsystems Three Input Subsystems Commerce Essay Human resources intelligence subsystem This subsystem has the responsibility for keeping current on environmental activities that are especially important to human resource activities (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). Data and information are gathered describing activities of the government, labour unions, suppliers, the local and financial communities, and even competitors (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). Employment firms function as suppliers, funnelling applicants to the firm. Applicants can also come from the local community and from competitors (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). The financial community provides data and information concerning the economic climate, which influences the human resource plans (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). Much of the intelligence data can be obtained from commercial databases (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). The HRIS database All of the data and information provided by the input subsystems is held in computer storage (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). The storage units can reside in IS, HR, or other locations (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). The data relates primarily to the firms employees, but also can describe the environmental elements with which HR interfaces (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). Database management system (DBMS) software performs the maintenance processes (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). HRIS Database consists of number of databases such as employee database, executive search firm databases, university databases, employment agency databases, public access databases, corporate job banksÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦etc. Output subsystems The output subsystems consist of various types of software that transform data in the database into information outputs. The software can include report writers, mathematical models, office automation packages such as e-mail and desktop publishing, and applications of artificial intelligence such as expert systems. According to the model, the output subsystems represent the six groups of HRSP applications. 54 Workforce planning subsystem is one of the output subsystems in HRIS model, which enables the manager to identify future personal needs (Figure 2.6). It facilitates organisation charting, salary forecasting, job analysis or evaluation, planning and work force modelling. Recruiting output subsystem enables applicant tracking and internal search. Workforce Management output subsystem work on performance appraisal, training, position control that ensures headcount does not exceed budgeted limits, relocation, skills or competency measuring, succession planning and disciplinary. Compensation output subsystem works on merit increases, payroll, executive compensation, bonus incentives and attendance. Benefits output subsystem defined contribution, benefits and claims processing. Environmental reporting output subsystem work on reporting firms personnel policies and practices to the government. Reports like union increases, health records and toxic substance produce through this system. The model (Figure 2.6) provided a good framework of HRIS components. It followed the three main concepts of system: inputs, processes, and outputs addressing the wide variety of HRIS applications as well. According to McLeod and Anctis (1995), the HRIS has provided strong support in the compensation and benefits areas, but other activities that occur during employment demand greater attention. For example, little attention has been directed at activities relating to organizational exit, or termination. Many firms have neglected applications for workforce management and recruiting. They further emphasised, if HRIS resources were aimed at building strong planning systems, up-to-date HRIS databases, and responsive information output systems, then the HRIS would support management in each of its workforce-related activities. This direct management support would contribute to the firms strategic objectives, whatever they might be. As the HRIS does a better job of providing management with in formation about people and their jobs, it will solidify its position in the firm as a valued information system (McLeod and Anctis, 1995). 55 2.4.6. HRIS Model McLeod and Schell Data Information Transaction processing system Human resources research subsystem Human resources intelligence subsystem Internal sources Environmental sources Input subsystems Output subsystems Users HRIS Database Recruiting subsystem Environmental reporting subsystem Compensation Subsystem Workforce management subsystem Work force planning subsystem Benefits subsystem Figure 2.7: A model of a human resource information system Source: McLeod and Schell, 2007 McLeod and Schell slightly modified the Resource-Flow HRIS Model in 2007 (Figure 2.7). The data processing sub system was named as transaction processing sub system. 56 2.5. Human resource strategy Thomas (1996) defined human resources strategy as a co-ordinated set of actions aimed at integrating an organisations culture, organisation, people and systems (Figure 2.8). He articulated human resources strategy as the cohesion and consistency of a distinctive pattern of behaviour. Its relationship to the corporate strategy determines its effectiveness and success. Figure 2.8: HR strategy Source: Thomas, 1996 IT Marketing Finance Sales Production R D Corporate strategy Human resources mission statement Human resources analysis Environmental analysis Organisation analysis Human resources planning Generation of strategic options/choices Objectives Culture Organisation People Systems Human resources functional action plan Implementation Review and evaluation HR strategy aids the organisation to achieve strategic goal in the medium to long term. It should emanate clearly from corporate business strategy aligning with organisational other plans and strategies (Figure 2.8). 57 The human resources function in todays organisation needs to think of itself as a business-operating unit, employing exactly the same marketing, technical and quantitative skills as those, which are employed, by other functions (Thomas, 1996). Figure 2.9: Human resources strategy planning Source: Thomas, 1996 HR strategic plan is influenced by four dimensions: culture, organisation, people and systems (Figure 2.9). Organisation structure, job roles and reporting lines should integrate with employee skill levels, staff prospective and management capabilities. Culture, which is key aspect of the organisational, is belief, value, norms and style. Organisation culture its measurement, monitoring and management provides the potential to enhance organisational performance (Thomas, 1996). Systems can be manual as well as computerised processes used to carry out the tasks within the organisation. Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) or Human Resources Management Systems (HRMS) play leading role in computerised HR Systems. Therefore, HR strategy plan should not only be inline with corporative business plan but also with organisational Information Systems strategic plan. The structure job roles and reporting lines of the organisation The process by which things get done in the organisation The skill levels, staff potential and management capability of the organisation The beliefs, values, norms and style of the organisation Generation of strategic Options Choices Organisation Systems People Culture HR policies and objectives 58 2.7. Conclusion Organisations use Information Systems in all three levels of information management: strategic, tactical and operational. HRIS is one of the information systems out which transforms the role of the HR department incorporating records for employee resource, rewards, training, etc. Many studies cited HRIS benefits, such as improvements in accuracy, cost saving, timely and quick access to information through HR reports, decision-making and increased competitiveness. Lack of top management support, funds, HR knowledge of system designers and HR solutions, are the main factors keeping organisations away from HRIS. According to literature, human resource planning, recruiting, and training are less frequent users within personnel perhaps reflecting greater use of the system for routine reporting than for decision support. HRIS is classified in to two types according to their usage: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢unsophisticatedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬- and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢sophisticatedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬-. Payroll and ben efits administration, employee absence records keeping electronically are listed as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢unsophisticatedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬-. Use of IS in recruitment and selection, training and development, HR planning and performance appraisal, is classified as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¢sophisticatedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬-. Many researches were curious about the integration of HRIS with other emerging technologies such as MIS, ERP, eHRÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦etc. Due to the advent of Internet technology and the emerging concept of business intelligence HRM systems have changed to e-HRM systems. It is very hard to give a clear-cut view to distinguish eHR from HRIS since HRIS developed with most of the eHR features today. According to Alvarez-Suescun (2007), firm size or technical skills do not affect organisational sourcing decisions. The HRIS implementation sourcing decision may be influenced by previous experiences in the implementation of other systems and strategic contribution of the IS on the internal organization . According to some literature organisations gain competitive and strategic advantage if HRIS activities are undertaken internally. HRIS facilitates training and development and recruitment and section processes of the organisations. The training and development function is essential for changing behaviour and culture and reinforcing the new behaviour and culture in an organisation. 59 The training process consists of four phases. The first phase is the training needs analysis (TNA). The second phase is the design phase. The third phase is the implementation phase and the training evaluation is the final phase. HRIS mainly facilitate TNA and training evaluation phase. Succession planning which is facilitated by HRIS helps to identify key players in the organisation and develop them for future demand. Recruitment represents one of the core staffing activities that need to be planned efficiently and effectively. Pattanayak (2000) identified four sub functions: determining the nature of the job to be filled, type of personal required, sources of recruitment and selection process. HRIS facilitates all four of those sub processes using its job analysis, skill inventory and E-recruitment features. In the Sri Lankan context, literature relevant to HRIS, training and development and recruitment and selection cannot be found. Especially, how HRIS contributes to HR panning t hrough training and development and recruitment and selection is yet being studied. The systematic development of HRIS models is studied through the literature review. The first conceptual framework is the Hyde-Shafritz Model, which listed the modules as sixteen inputs and outputs presented in 1977 by Albert C. Hyde and Jay M. Shafritz. The Simon Input/Data Maintenance/Output Model was submitted in 1983 by Sidney H. Simon. It represented HRIS in terms of input, maintenance, and output functions. The Manzini-Gridley Hardware Network Model was presented in 1986 by Andrew Manzini and John D. Gridley. They viewed the HRIS in terms of interfaces with a corporate human resources database. The Fisher, Schoenfeldt, and Shaw Application Modules presented in 1990 by Cynthia D. Fisher, Lyle Schoenfeldt, and James B. Shaw identifying nine major application areas of the HRIS. The most recent and comprehensive model was a resource-flow HRIS model, which was presented by HRSP (Human Resource Syste ms Professionals) and McLeod and Anctis in 1995. Same model was presented with some miner changes by McLeod and Schell in 2007. This was more advanced than earlier models. There was some amount of focus to embed artific
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Technology plays a major role in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organisations and offices, and has contributed positively to productivity and efficiency of businesses. Social media and globalisation may also have lead to an easier way of communication cross-culturally and making business with individuals and companies internationally. However, there is a concern that technology has gone so far that organisations and offices might become both paper and people less in the future. This paper will discuss and evaluate if there is a possibility for offices and organisations to be completely people and paper less in the future. The first part will define and explain the terms; globalisation, social media, office and organisation, the second will evaluate with the use organisational examples of which technology has changed the ways of interaction and services. The final part will include a conclusion and recommendations for the future. Globalisation can be defined as the following; Ã¢â¬Å"The process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scaleÃ¢â¬ Globalisation is possible due to technological advances as the internet, smartphones, and computers and further back in time by improved vehicles and the ability to travel far distances, making the world smaller. However, part of globalisation is also traveling and social interaction amongst peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures etc. One definition of social media can be websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. (Press, 2014) Social media has indeed simplified the interaction between people socially it is now easier to gain, have and further maintain contact with people across the world and condu... ...ielfisher/2012/05/02/poor-students-are-the-real-victims-of-college-discrimination/ Nogales, A. (2010, October 13). Facebook versus face-to-face. Retrieved March 27th, 2014, from Psychology: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/family-secrets/201010/facebook-versus-face-face Podmoroff, D. (2014). Retrieved March 26th, 2014, from Mind Tools- essential skills for an excellent career : http://www.mindtools.com/CommSkll/Cross-Cultural-communication.htm Press, O. U. (2014). Retrieved March 20th, 2014, from Oxford Dictionaries- Language Matters: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/organization street, Q. (2014). Retrieved March 27th , 2014, from Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/paperless_office.html University, P. (2012). Retrieved March 20th, 2014, from The Free Dictionary By Farlex : http://www.thefreedictionary.com/organisation
Monday, August 19, 2019
Dreams, what are dreams? For many years I have wondered what dreams are made of. After much thought and deliberation I have stumbled upon three possible answers to this question. First of all, I think it could be a period of total escape from reality and all of the problems that reality brings with it. Second, I believe that dreams provide a time of contemplation of past mistakes and what would have been the outcome if a different choice would have been made. Third, I think dreams may contain the simple answers to difficult problems which the mind overlooked and disregarded as to basic of a solution for such a complex problem.The day is stressful, and through the day one does not always have a time to rest and relax. Dreams provide a way to relive this stress. It does this by allowing the mind to escape to anywhere it desires. Thus allowing eight hours to be anything oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart wants and needs. Dreams may be the only way for one to live out their Ã¢â¬Å"dreams.Ã¢â¬ We all know we make mistakes, we can not help but to make mistakes, it is human nature. Dreams provide us with an open opportunity to look back and analyze the mistake and choice. Looking close at a mistake and its eventual consequences along with the choices one did not make and consciences one did not receive provides us with a golden opportunity to not make the same mistake again.Answers, everyone needs answers to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s problems to live. Problems from where one will find oneÃ¢â¬â¢s next meal to what sort of life is in the outer most part of the solar system. All day long the brain thinks of very complex answers to these highly complex problems. Sometimes, and only sometimes the simple answer is better than the complex answer, but if one is looking for the complex answer how can one find the simple answer? Dreams, while asleep oneÃ¢â¬â¢s brain can not function on the same level as when one is awake. Therefore, when one is asleep and is still looking for the answer one will not have any other except the simple answer to think about. This will show one the correct answer so one will have it when one wakes up the next morning.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
In every society nonverbal communication is one of the most powerful tools that a person can use to interpret the message that is being delivered. Even though verbal communication is fairly straightforward, nonverbal communication allows others to sense the true emotions of the person that is expressing them. For example even though a person may say that they are not irritated, their usage of voice may display otherwise. Nonverbal communication not only reveals hidden messages, but it also complements, substitutes, and exaggerates verbal communication. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It was 8:00 a.m. on April 9, 1999 and I was saying goodbye to my parents at the San Francisco Airport. While I was walking away from my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s gate I remembered the study for my Interpersonal Communication class, and decided that the airport was a perfect place to observe nonverbal behavior. I sat myself near the entrance of a gate so I could clearly focus on personal space and voice behaviors while people stood in line to board their plane. This location allowed me to observe some very distinct behaviors, and I was amazed at the many different ways people express their emotions and the many people that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t aware of these expressions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After I observed four different boarding lines, I soon realized how impatient our society reacts to situations. As soon as the airline attendants announced the boarding for a certain flight, it seemed as if everybody rushed to the...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
A) FAUST (P. 493) Ã¢â¬âKENNEDY TELLS US ONLY THAT IT IS A Ã¢â¬Å"TRAGIC GRAND OPERA. Ã¢â¬ EXPAND ON HIS NOTE. WHAT IS FAUST NOTED FOR? IN WHAT OTHER FORMS DOES THE STORY APPEAR? Faust was a man who was not happy with its own life and who essentially was willing to sell his soul for more. He wants a grand life filled with glamour, although also a man who has attempted suicide. It is the story of a man willing to ultimately, and symbolically, sells his soul to the devil for what he desires (Ã¢â¬Å"PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s CaseÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"FaustÃ¢â¬ comes to be a metaphor of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s life, Paul is a lad that resembles Faust. He thinks his current life is filled with ugliness and commonness, he desires to have a life of grandeur and luxury, he is so fanciful where always imagining those finest things are happening on him. Finally he Ã¢â¬Å"accomplishedÃ¢â¬ his dream; he stole $1000 from Denny & CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s for his trip to New York, the place he always wants to go. However, as the theft has been made public and he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go back to Cordelia, so he kills himself by jumping onto a railway track. In my opinion, this is an allusion. The reason why Cather mentioned Faust in the early paragraphs is because starting from that point, Paul is going to become the other Faust, which will do anything for what he desires. B) Ã¢â¬Å"CORDELIA STREETÃ¢â¬ (496) Ã¢â¬âWHO WAS CORDELIA? WHAT DOES HER SAD LIFE SYMBOLIZE THAT MIGHT BE IMPORTANT IN CATHERÃ¢â¬â¢S STORY? Cordelia is the daughter of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s King Lear, she always remain honest and true, she refused to flatter his father just so she would get an inheritance, finally she was banished by Lear with given nothing (Ã¢â¬Å"Paul CaseÃ¢â¬ ). Cordelia is a symbol of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s stubborn, the stubborn that how he fights for his dream, although in an improper way. Paul doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to pretend happy, he expresses his thinking out bravely, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care the consequences and otherÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, which is similar to Cordelia. C) Ã¢â¬Å"HE HAD NO MIND FOR THE CASH BOY STAGEÃ¢â¬ (497) Ã¢â¬âHINT: LOOK UP HORATIO ALGER. Horatio Alger, Jr. was a 19th-century American author. Many of his works have been described as rags to riches stories, illustrating how down-and-out boys might be able to achieve the American Dream of wealth and success through hard work, courage, determination, and concern for others. (Ã¢â¬Å"Wikipedia-HoratioÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"The Cash BoyÃ¢â¬ , one of his works, narrating the protagonist succeeded after living in the gutters of cities. Combining them together, we can say that the meaning of that quote is Paul doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go through the cash boy stage, as the stage must be full with pains and toil. However, he was interested in the triumphs of these cash boys who had become famous (497). Which means he just wants to is skip all those toiling steps and jumps into the luxury life directly. D) Ã¢â¬Å"IT WAS AT THE THEATRE AND AT CARNEGIE HALL THAT PAUL REALLY LIVED; THE REST WAS _BUT A_ _SLEEP AND A FORGETTING_. Ã¢â¬ (498) Ã¢â¬âTHE LAST PART OF THIS QUOTATION (IN ITALICS) IS A SNEAKY REFERENCE TO A POEM BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, CALLED Ã¢â¬Å"INTIMATIONS OF IMMORTALITY. Ã¢â¬ LOOK UP THIS POEM AND DETERMINE WHAT WORDSWORTH SAYS ABOUT THE VARIOUS STAGES OF LIFE. HOW DOES THIS RELATE TO PAULÃ¢â¬â¢S STORY? In Intimations of Immortality, Wordsworth says, for our souls originate in a purer, more glorious realm, heaven itself. Children retain some memory of paradise, which glorifies their experiences on earth, but youths begin to lose it, and adults, distracted by earthly concerns, entirely forget it (Ã¢â¬Å"Wikipedia-IntimationsÃ¢â¬ ). Carnegie Hall is a simile of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s paradise; a place where he thinks he belongs to, and the only place he feels comfortable to stay in Cordelia Street. The only thing in his mind was his desire of luxury life and his passionate about arts. Other than that, was but a sleep and a forgetting. However, when he grows older, he may understand that everything was just a pipe dream, he will feel how stubborn he was before. Cather tries to tell out that having a dream wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t bad, but you have to act according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability, if not, you will become another Paul, the one who is so foolish that suicide because of his pigheaded in the fascination of those glamorous thing. E) CARNATIONS (490; 504) Carnation, Red Meaning: Alas for my poor heart, admiration, my heart aches for you, pride, and fascination (Ã¢â¬Å"Meaning Of FlowersÃ¢â¬ ). Carnation in the story has an allusion to PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s fragility, his craving for beauty and his inability to thrive in environment, which also has a big contrast to Paul drabÃ¢â¬â¢s surroundings (Ã¢â¬Å"Paul Case-2Ã¢â¬ ). Cather introduced the carnation at the first paragraph, it impressed me as the contrast between the adornment and PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s outwear. In my point of view, the carnation has a meaning of dignity and also the strong passion that longs for luxury from Paul. Later, the carnations in his coat were drooping with the cold, he noticed, their red glory all over (504). From here, we can see how the carnations metaphors the thinking of Paul, it is telling us that everything is over; he is going to give up his dream and suicide at last. F) Ã¢â¬Å"PAUL DROPPED BACK INTO THE IMMENSE DESIGN OF THINGSÃ¢â¬ (505) Ã¢â¬âWHAT PAUL WAS A REBEL. WHAT WOULD HE THINK OF BEING PART OF A DESIGN? WHICH DESIGN? DOES THIS ENDING SENTENCE SAY ANYTHING ABOUT PAULÃ¢â¬â¢S ESCAPE FROM HIS PITTSBURGH LIFE? This sentence ends PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, He was not meant to be of that higher social class, and it is not his world. He is just exactly like the people who he despises; he has ended his life before doing anything of significance and is just the same as the others (E-notes). PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide does not help to escape from his Pittsburgh life, he is still the lad he was. Part of the design should be his imagination of life before, the reason he dropped back is because he died already, everything was over, he feels regretful of his impulse but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing else he can do now, just like everything goes back to the starting point. _BIBLIOGRAPHY_ LITERATURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO FICTION, POETRY, AND DRAMA Ã¢â¬â X. J. KENNEDY AND DANA GIOIA, EDS. LONGMAN, 11TH EDITION, 2009. Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Å"PAULÃ¢â¬â¢S CASE BY WILLA CATHER. Ã¢â¬ WRITE MY ESSAY. 5 AUG. 2009 Ã¢â¬Å"PAUL CASE-2. Ã¢â¬ TCCAMPA. 17 FEB. 2009 Ã¢â¬Å"MEANING OF FLOWERS. Ã¢â¬ SHERI & BOB STRITOF. Ã¢â¬Å"WIKIPEDIA Ã¢â¬â INTIMATIONS OF IMMORTALITY. Ã¢â¬ 2 MARCH. 2010 Ã¢â¬Å"WIKIPEDIA Ã¢â¬â HORATIO ALGER JR. Ã¢â¬ 24 FEB. 2010 < http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Horatio_Alger,_Jr. > SULLYMONSTER, KRANDOG. Ã¢â¬Å"E-NOTES, PAUL CASE. Ã¢â¬ ONLINE POSTING. 12 DEC. 2009.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Tuesday: Hats ON for Reading Ã¢â¬â Wear your favorite hat to show your reading spirit. Wednesday: Reading Takes You Places Ã¢â¬â Dress like a Tourist. Ã¢â¬Å"Name that Book TriviaÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Every hour an excerpt from a book will be read over the intercom and classrooms will have the opportunity to guess the book. Thursday: Reading BRIGHTENS your World Ã¢â¬â Dress in bright colors. Friday: Wear your shades for SURFF day Ã¢â¬â Silent, Uninterrupted Reading For Fun! Each grade level will determine how they choose to participate in Literacy Week. Here are some suggestions; of course your grade level team can come up with your own ideas: * Decorate the outside of your door with your favorite book or literary characters. The emphasis is on student participation and student decorated doors. * Book Talks. Students can write Book Talk reviews for books they are reading. * Character Museums. Students can create posters of a book character with face cut-outs. The student places their face in the opening and holds the poster up to create a character museum. Visitors tour the museum and travel from character to character learning about each book. * Ã¢â¬Å"Book, Blankets and BearsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Students bring their favorite blanket, and stuffed animal to read outside during the day. * Ã¢â¬Å"Poem in your PocketÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Students create a poem and recite them to each other throughout the day. * Ã¢â¬Å"The Book SwapÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Students bring in a gently used book to swap with another student in their class or grade level. * ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Theater. * Book Chain Ã¢â¬â Students fill out a strip of paper with a title of each book they read during celebrate literacy week. * Bookmark decorating contest * Create a book jacket. Use paper bags to make a new book cover for a library book. Mrs. Ward will put them on display. * Story mobile to retell a favorite book. * Tri-oramas representing the beginning, middle and end of a story. * Character dress up day. Dress up as your favorite book character. * Book Buddy collaborative activities.
Larkin is an established poet and was cherished by people all around the world. He won the respect of many readers, critics and non-critics. He was gifted in his writing and through this gift he bought us the poems we have today. Larkin therefore can be said to be a memorable poet and this will now be investigated. How is he memorable? And what makes him memorable? To start the investigation off I am going to look at the mood poems were written in by Larkin. Each poem is set in its own mood and the mood can help the reader to understand the poem. Ã¢â¬Å"Dockery and SonÃ¢â¬ is the first poem. It is about Larkin going to a funeral and remembering one of his university colleagues called Dockery. Larkin has found out that his son now attends the university and this leads on to the general image of the poem. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦In '43, when I was twenty-one. If he was younger, did he get this son At nineteen, twenty? Was he that withdrawnÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Larkin page 152 Dockery and Son) This quote shows the awe that Larkin shows at this point in time. The poem was written in a sad mood as it is a remembrance poem. He then continues the poem in much the same way showing his point of view and talking about a popular concept for him, life. Ã¢â¬Å"Life is first boredom, then fear. Whether or not we use it, it goesÃ¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ (Larkin page 153 Dockery and Son) Life is a matter that Larkin talks about a lot of the time. Whether in high spirits or in low. Therefore the next poem I will look at is Ã¢â¬Å"High WindowsÃ¢â¬ . This is yet another example of Larkin's preoccupation with the disappointing nature of experience, which I have illustrated for Dockery and Son. High Windows is the culmination of Larkin's disappointment. He says that as age comes along, fantasies from the younger years of a person's life, seem to disappear as well. Ã¢â¬Å"I know this paradise Everyone old has dreamed of all their lives- Bonds and gestures pushed to one side Like an outdated combine harvester,Ã¢â¬ (Larkin page 165 High Windows) In this poem, Larkin is emphasising to what extent he feels cheated by his experience of life. However, although Larkin is dissatisfied with what his generation has been allowed, he looks at how life treated those who were old when he was young. As Larkin looks at the freedom given to the generation which has succeeded his own in the poem Ã¢â¬Å"High WindowsÃ¢â¬ , he is confronted with an optimistic image of endlessness. This is yet another one of his popular subjects and does also occur quite frequently in his poems. It can be seen from the above examples and quotes, that Larkin writes poems that have certain moods and thoughts behind them. This is an important factor for a poet and this helped Larkin to be remembered in the way that he is today. Another matter that could help to see why Larkin is such a memorable poet is whether or not he is arrogant in his poems. Some say that he is and others disagree. Hence I will investigate another few poems to see if he is or is not. The poem I am going to look at to start this part off is Ã¢â¬Å"The ViewÃ¢â¬ . This is a poem looking on life from the elderly person's point of view. Larkin says in this poem that life doesn't turn out to be what you expected when you were younger. It changes and becomes drear: Ã¢â¬Å"What's left is drear. Unchilded and unwifed, I'm Able to view that clear: So final. And so near.Ã¢â¬ (Larkin page 195 The View) He does not appear to be arrogant in this poem. He seems very modest, as can be seen from the quote, and he also is being realistic. This brings about the idea that Larkin is not arrogant. To end this part of the investigation off, I shall look at another poem called Ã¢â¬Å"Wild OatsÃ¢â¬ . This is about two young women walking into Larkin's workplace and he looking at them in amazement. One in a beautiful Ã¢â¬Å"English roseÃ¢â¬ , the other a Ã¢â¬Å"friend in specsÃ¢â¬ . Larkin finds that he can talk to and go out with the one with specs. Ã¢â¬Å"But it was the friend I took out, And in seven years after that Wrote over four hundred letters Gave a ten-guinea ringÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (Larkin page 143 Wild Oats) He does everything with her but still has a Ã¢â¬Å"crushÃ¢â¬ on the Ã¢â¬Å"English RoseÃ¢â¬ . This leads the girlfriend of his to then say to him: Ã¢â¬Å"That I was too selfish, withdrawn, And easily bored to love.Ã¢â¬ In all I can say that Larkin is not an arrogant poet from the poem that I have read. I can say that sometimes, when he doesn't understand something, he might knock it down a little but does actually respect it. Finally I will look at if Larkin keeps his life hidden. In his poems he talks a lot about life events and things that are not fiction. He therefore brings his life into the poems that he writes but does not base the whole poem upon these happenings. From the quotes listed above, it is possible to say that life is an important factor in his poetry and it is because of the realism that is involved in his poems, that he is such a memorable poet. Larkin writes from different perspectives and he does so well. He will write a poem to reflect a mood or an experience that might occur in life. To write a poem on this is what forms the base of a real ingenious poet and Larkin is this in my opinion. Therefore I join in saying that Larkin is made a memorable poet and am happy to agree with that statement overall.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 0OVERVIEW This chapter covers the background information of the study, statement of the problem by the researcher and objectives of the study to be attained. It also covers the research questions, significant of the study as well as the scope of the study and its limitations. 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION There is an ongoing problem about leadership styles and its impact on various aspects of employee performance and their work-related health.It has been suggested that leadership factors had an influence on the employee performance, although relationship between leaders and subordinates has gradually been more focused; but it is still scientifically unclear as to what extent and in what ways leaders influence the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. The leader can be described as a possessor of the tools to create and change the structure and culture within an organization. The structural changes have led to new demands on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ flexibility and ability t o handle changes, which is referred to as a heath risk (Aronson & Sjogren, 1994).With the ever changing business landscape of more and innovative competitors, most service firms recognize the need to introduce innovations and new technologies within their organizational processes to stay in the market, or retain their competitive advantage compared to their rivals. An attempt was made to find out the correlation between leadership style of mangers and performance and satisfaction of managers and followers. Democratic/participative leadership style involves employees in decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it) to attain the organization goals.Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather is a sign of strength that our employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything. This is why you employ knowledgeable and skilful employees. Using t his style is of mutual benefit. It allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. A democratic leadership style will lead to the use of non-controlling tactics of influence in which managers and employees discuss work-related issues.It is also effective for the performance evaluation as illustrated below:- 1. 1. 1 Diagram showing performance evaluation. 1. 2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The relationship between leadership style and employee performance has been a subject controversy by researchers (Nwadian 1998 and Adeyeni 2006). The controversy was centered on whether or not the leadership style influences the level of job performance among employees. Common observation shows that leadership style could perhaps have serious impact on human relationship hence affected the employee performance.For the purpose of high performance of employees and subordinates there was the need of using effective leadership style and also important. Research also described that effective leadership styles can enhance the employee performance and commitment with their job. So the execution of leadership styles is one way that with use of different leadership styles, leaders can construct commitment and job satisfaction of employees that increase their performance. 1. 3RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The general purpose of the study was to establish the relationship between employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and leadership style.The specific objectives of the study were: i) To identify the extent of democratic leadership style used in the organization. ii) To determine the indicators of employee performance. iii) To establish the relationship between democratic leadership style and employee performance. 1. 4RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study covers the questions which are from the objectives so that it answers them appropriately. i) To what extent does democratic leadership style improve employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance? ii) What are the indicators of employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performan ce? iii) Is there good relationship between democratic leadership style and employeeÃ¢â¬â¢ performance? . 5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study intends to bridge the gap between the researcher and other previous researchers who undertook a similar case study. This study will benefit other researchers in learning instruction such as universities to make reference from. It shall also benefit companies in the way that they will have knowledge about the use of democratic leadership style and employee performance. Employers will generally have an overview of how workable and effective democratic leadership style should be handled through the project.It is hoped that as a result of the study, employees at the middle management and lower level will benefit from more productive and efficiencies in performing their duties. 1. 6SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study was conducted in Mombasa Municipal Council in Coast Province Mombasa District at Mwembe Tayari. 1. 7LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. Time limi tation 2. Lack of funds to facilitate and complete the study 3. Lack of material for reference 4. Disclosure of information by the population. 1. 8DEFINITION OF TERMINOLOGIES 1. 8. 1LEADERSHIP STYLELeadership style is the behaviour of leader that has expressed ability to influence the subordinates toward the achievement of goals (Armandi Oppedisans & Sherman 2003). Leadership style has been classified in different ways in prior researches. Some of them are as follows:- 1. Participative Leadership Style Is defined as a leader who shares decision making with group members or subordinates (Dubrin, 1995). The leader will identify the problem, generate solutions and evaluate the alternatives together with subordinates.The decision-making of participative leadership style is decentralized authority throughout the organization (Steers, 1977). 2. Democratic Leadership Style Is defined as a friendly, helpful leader who encourages participation. A leader with a democratic leadership style sha res his or her power with subordinates and decisions are made by consensus or majority vote (Seidenberg & Snadowsky, 1976). Democratic leaders encourage subordinates to discuss and make decisions as a group on the policy and steps towards achieving goals. 3. Autocratic Leadership StyleIs defined as a directive leader, controlling, discouraging or suppressing participation. An autocratic leader centralizes power with little or no room for subordinates to participate in decision-making process (Seidenberg & Snadowsky 1976). Autocratic leader determine all policies, dictate techniques and activities, assign tasks and work partners to group members and are personal in their criticism and praise. 1. 8. 2INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE This can be stated as the product of ability multiplied by motivation it gives performance.Furthermore it can be the belief that performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental factors influencing performance primarily through their effort on t he individual determinants of performance. Despite the motivation to perform, it is necessary to briefly highlight the barriers that might affect the performance of employees. 1. 8. 3INFORMATION This is the processed data which was collected, interpreted and analyzed to give a meaning. 1. 8. 5POPULATION It refers to the entire group of individuals having a common characteristic. . 8. 6SAMPLE This is a small group obtained from the accessible population. 1. 8. 7SAMPLING It is the process of selecting a number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individual selected represent the population. 1. 8. 8STATISTICS This is the science of organizing, describing and analyzing data. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0OVERVIEW This chapter covers all the literature review from different authors of different text books, Journals, newspapers, magazines and any other related source of obtaining information. 2. 1. 1PURPOSEThe purpose of the research was placed on managerial initiative, the technique had been applied to solve the following problems:- Ã¢â¬â Lack of operating flexibility Ã¢â¬â Low morale Ã¢â¬â Poor work quality Ã¢â¬â High labour turnover Ã¢â¬â High absenteeism 2. 1. 2DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP BENEFITS This brings about the following:- Ã¢â¬â Improvement of productivity Ã¢â¬â Improvement in quality of a product/service delivered Ã¢â¬â It reduces labour turnovers Ã¢â¬â It reduces need for direct supervision Ã¢â¬â Reduction in idle time Ã¢â¬â Increase of good communication which brings about feedbacks. 2. 2INFLUENCES OF PERFORMANCENevertheless, the principle influence on the organization performance is the quality of the workforce at all levels of the organization. The function that human resources can play in gaining a competitive advantage for an organization is empirically well documented (Brewster, Carey Dowling, Grobler, Holland and Warnich, 2003). For organizations to accomplish their goals, they must continually look f or better ways to organize and manage their work. There is a growing recognition that the primary source of competitive advantage is derived from an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource.This was not always the case, as human resources were traditionally seen as a cost (Brewster, et al, 2003). Due to the realization that people are the most valuable assets in an organization, the importance of performance management has been pushed to the fore (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1995). The complexity of managing organizations today requires managers to view performance in several areas simultaneously. The performance measurement system employed in an organizational must therefore measure the performance of all assets including the human ones.The Balance scorecard of Kaplan and Norton (1996) is a mechanism which provides a holistic measure of organizational performance. It is a set of measures that provide mangers a fast but comprehensive view of the business. The Balanced scorecard is not only a measurement system but also a management system, which enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action (Kaplan ad Norton, 1996). It provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results.When fully deployed, the Balance Scorecard transforms strategic planning from an academic exercise into the nerve centre of an enterprise (Norton, 1999). The Balance scorecard includes both financial measures that tell the results of actions already taken, and operational measures that are the drivers of future financial performance (Kaplan and Norton, 1996). It can be seen that the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance has an impact on the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s wider objectives, and it is thus imperative that every employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance should be managed.This process of performance management includes group assessments and peer reviews, as well as written repor ts (Hellriegel et al, 2004). In recent years performance management system have become more important because managers are under constant pressure to improve the performance of their organizations (Holloway, Francis Hinton, 1999). As the performance of organizations influence the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s continued existence, it is therefore necessary to discuss the notion of managing this performance. 2. 3IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE Performance is important to us as a people and organizations.In fact, most of us believe that we can, and will, improve at what we do, and we expect others to improve over time as (Temple, 2002). People are an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest assets individuals and organizations have learned about the importance of the role of people in an organization depends on its people (Barlett and Ghoshal, 1995). According to (Armstrong and Baron, 1998) states that the role of human resources is absolutely critical in raising performance in an organization. Ultimately it is the performance of many individuals which culminates in the performance of an organization context.According to (Hellriegel, et al 2004) states that performance management is an integral part of effective human resource management and development strategy. Performance management is an ongoing and joint process where the employee, with the assistance of the employer, Ã¢â¬Å"strives to improve the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s individual performance and his contribution to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s wider objectivesÃ¢â¬ (Hellriegel, et al 2004). According to Amos, et al (2004) defined performance management as Ã¢â¬Å"the process that begins with translating the overall strategic objectives of the organization into clear objectives for each individual employeeÃ¢â¬ .Performance Management can also be seen to incorporate all of these aspects of human resource management that are designed to progress and/or develop the effectiveness and efficiency of both the individual and the organization (A mos, et at. , 2004). First-class performance management begins and develops with the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations (Hendrey, 1995). To elevate and sustain the level of work performance, managers must look past individual or team performance to a larger arena of play: the performance management system (Campbell, McCloy, Oppler and Sagar, 1993).The success of a performance management system is reliant on the commitment/support of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s management. Performance Management Systems must be seen to reward personal development and achievement (Hendrey, 1995). Within the performance management field itself, it is important that targets are viewed to be fair and equitable across all groups. It is imperative that employees have confidence in their work and recognize that management supports them (Cherrington, 1994; Baird 1996).A good performance management system motivates employees to better their own performance, promotes self-mo tivation, and builds and strengthens relationships via open communication between employees and managers (Baird, 1986). 2. 4EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE According to Amos, et al. (2004) states that Ã¢â¬Å"the effective management of individual performance is critical to the execution of strategy and the organization achieving its strategic objectivesÃ¢â¬ . Performance cannot be left in anticipation that it will develop naturally, despite the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s natural desire to perform and be rewarded for it.This desire needs to be accommodated, facilitated and cultivated (Amos, et al 2004). In return for this performance, organizations extend themselves in various forms of acknowledgement (Foot and Hook, 1999). Individual performance has become a topical issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment, so much so that organizations go to great lengths to appraise and manage it (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). Whetten and Cameron (1998) states that individual performance is the product of ability multiplied by motivation.Furthermore, Cummings and Schwab (1973) concur with the belief that performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental factors influencing performance primarily through their effect on the individual determinants of performance-ability and motivation. Organizational leadership can be described as the leadership present within the organization, having a direct and indirect effect on individual employee performance Ã¢â¬â ability and motivation. According to Cummings and Schwab (1973) describe the need for at least minimal ability before an employee can carry out a task, regardless how motivated he may be.Similarly, an abundance of ability will riot result in successful performance if the employee is completely unwilling to perform adequately. This view is supported by Vroom (1964) who indicates that factors influencing individual performance within the organization are factors such as the ability of the willingness of the person to exert effort (motivation). 2. 4. 1LEADERSHIP Finally, organizational leadership can be described as the leadership present within the organization, having a direct and indirect effect on individual employee performance.This role of organizational leadership is further substantial in HallÃ¢â¬â¢s (1996) Competence process, which depicts performance as a dependent collective competence. The competence process is a three-dimensional approach consisting of collaboration, commitment and creativity. The message conveyed by an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders may be one that encourages and enables competence and, in turn, performance. 2. 4. 2FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE Despite the motivation to perform, it is necessary to briefly highlight the barriers that might affect the performance of employees.For organizations purposes factors affecting overall employee performance may be separated into two groups: Internal and external. Internal factors are those factors over which the organization ha in fluence and control, such a job descriptions and employee selection. External factors are those factors over which the organization has little or no control, such as demands for jobs grading systems (Hellriegel, et al. , 1999). Having outlined and defined individual performance, it is now necessary for this research, to review the relationship between performance and leadership. . 5PERFORMANCE AND LEADERSHIP Ultimately is the individual employee either performs, or fails to perform, a task. In order for an organization to perform, an individual must set aside his personal goals, at least in part, to strive for the collective goals of the organization. Thus, effective leadership enables greater participation of the entire workforce, and can also influence both individual and organizational performance (Bass, 1997; Mullins, 1999). The success of an organization is reliant on the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to optimize human resources.A good leader understands the importance of employees i n achieving the goals of the organization and that motivating these employees is of paramount importance in achieving these goals. To have an effective organization, the people within the organization need to be inspired to invest themselves in the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission. The employees need to be stimulated so that they can be effective; hence effective organizations required effective leadership. To have an effective organization, there must be effective and stimulating relation between the people involved in the organization (Paulus, Seta and Baron, 1996).It is generally accepted that the effectiveness of any set of people is largely dependent on the quality of its leadership. Effective leader behaviour facilitates the attainment, of the followers desires, which then results in effective performance (Martiz, 1995; Ristow, et al. , 1999). Preliminary research undertaken by (Swanepoel et al. , 2000) found that outstanding leaders, in terms of effectiveness, are perceived to s how a strong and direct, but democratic and participative leadership style, and are seen as agents of change and visionaries who increase organizational performance.According to (Botha, 2001) concludes that the need of firms to flourish in the world of escalating competitiveness, of technological advances, of altering government regulations and of changing employee attitudes, requires an advanced level of leadership more than ever before. His views further demonstrate the importance of leadership in the business arena. Research data (Brand, et al. , 2000) has clearly shown that transformational leaders are more effective than transactional leaders regardless of how Ã¢â¬Å"effectivenessÃ¢â¬ has been defined. This can be further supported by research conducted by Ristow, et al. 1999), which concluded that there was a positive relationship between certain styles of leadership and organizational effectiveness within the administration of East Africa. 2. 5. 1CHANGES AFFECTING LEADERSH IP Leadership is a dynamic process, influenced by changing requirements of the task, the group itself and the individual members. The implication o this is that there is no Ã¢â¬Å"one best wayÃ¢â¬ of leading, and leaders need to be able to exercise a range of behaviour to maintain their role effectively (G. A Cole 2002). Cole said that the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s principal role is to influence the group towards the achievement of group goals.In an official group, such as a production team, goals are set mainly, if not exclusively, by senior management. In an informal (unofficial) group, composed of people who have got together as friends and workmates, group goals are much more likely to be agreed on a consensus basis. Either way, the leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s task is to gain the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to these goals. Research studies conducted over the last thirty (30) years have suggested that there are at least four key variables which are crucial in any analysis of leadership. These are: 1. the attributes (knowledge, skills, attitude) of the leader 2. he nature of the task of goal 3. the nature of the group or team 4. the climate, or culture, of the organization. The most recent researches suggest that a contingency approach to leadership is likely to achieve the most productive balance between the need of the team, the requirements of the task, the nature of the organization climate and the pressures exerted by the situation or context. According to (G. A Cole 2002) elaborated that a contingency approach is one where the leader adopts his or her behaviour to suit the needs of the situation.Clearly, such a view makes leadership somewhat problematic in practice. 2. 6LEADER ATTRIBUTES The earliest studies of leadership focused on the personal qualities, or traits, of leaders. The thinking behind this approach was that the secret of leadership lies in some innate Ã¢â¬Å"qualities of leadership possessed by selected member of societyÃ¢â¬ . Indeed, since most of the lead ing early exponents of management such as Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor were themselves lively personalities as well as successful entrepreneurs, it is not surprising that personal qualities were the focus of attention.It is true that personal qualities Ã¢â¬â or charisma Ã¢â¬â can play a part in the exercise of leadership. Nevertheless, the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"trait theoriesÃ¢â¬ of leadership produced such varied accounts of the key characteristics that Handy (2976) mentions that by 1950 over 100 studies into leadership qualities could only find common features in about 5% of the cases studies. Although trait theories are largely discredited as an instrument of leadership theory, the qualities approach can have some useful applications in management training and development. . 7LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES Since the 1950s much of the study of leadership has centered on the behaviour, or style of the leader. If leadership is not much about personal attributes, the argument goes , then perhaps it is about the way in which the leader exercise leadership? The Ã¢â¬Ëstyle theoristsÃ¢â¬â¢; as they have been called, were influenced by an earlier study by Lewin, Lippitt & White (1939) in which the effects of three different styles of leadership on the performance of groups in camp were studied.It was found that in terms of both goals achieved and memberÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction, a democratic style was preferred to automatic or Laissez-faire styles. The style theorists have taken dimensions such autocratic-democratic and employee centre-task-centred in order to test ideas about leadership style and leadership effectiveness. Leadership effectiveness, or success, refers to performance that leads to: 1. the achievement of organizational goals 2. a high degree of commitments to those goals by the group 3. a high level of group member satisfaction.Reddin (1970), in a discussion on managerial effectiveness distinguishes three types of effectiveness. 1. Apparent effectiv eness Ã¢â¬â the extent to which the manager gives the appearance of being effective by maintaining a high input into the job, but where in reality, his or her achievements are disappointing. 2. Personal effectiveness Ã¢â¬â The extent to which the manager achieves his or her own objectives, as opposed to those of the organization. 3. Leader effectiveness Ã¢â¬â The extent to which the leader influences his or her followers to achieve group objectives.The concepts of leadership that we are concerned with in this are associated with leader effectives. That is to say, they are concerned with the results of leadership rather than the inputs they are concerned with the achievement of organizational rather than personal goals, and they are intimately concerned with the relationship between the leader ad his or her group. The way in which the leader approaches the task and people needs of the situation is commonly referred to as leadership style.There have been several well-known st udies into styles of leadership and these are summarized brief below. 2. 7. 1THE MICHIGAN STUDIES In a series of studies carried out in early 1950, Rensis Likert and his colleagues studies that behaviour of supervisor of both high-and low- producing groups. The researchers observed that supervisors of high-producing groups tended to be employee-centered in their approach. That is they paid attention to relationships within the group, exercised less direct supervision, and encouraged participation in decision-making.By comparison, supervisors of the low-producing groups tended to be more directive in their behaviour and appeared to be more concerned with the demands of the task than the needs of people in their groups. High-producing groupsLow producing groups Employee-centered approachTask-centered approach 2. 7. 2THE OHIO STUDIES These were also conducted in the early 1950, but from a slightly different perspective from the Michigan studies. The basis of the Ohio researches (Stogdi ll and Coons, 1957) was a leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire of some 150 items.The analysis suggested that unlike the Michigan conclusions, the two approaches represented separate dimensions. That is to say, people could be scored on consideration and on initiating structures. High Consideration Low LowHigh Figure 2. 7. 2: Initiating structure The researches found that employee satisfaction was greatest under leaders who were rated high on consideration. However, the context had a bearing on responses, since military groups tended to discount consideration in favour of initiating structure. 2. 7. 3MOGREGOR AND LEADERSHIPDouglas McGregor (1960), reflecting on leadership and motivation at work, took the available literature on organizations and examined contemporary managerial policy and practice. Leadership style may affect either positive or negative performance of employees. Leaders who practice democratic style do motivate their employees hence performance increases. When an employee is recognized as part and parcel of the organizational contributors then he/she tend to work hard towards the achievement of the set organizational goals. 2. EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION AND LEADERSHIP STYLE According to Mosadegh Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006), employee job satisfaction refer to the attitude of employees towards their jobs and the organization which employees them. The researchers pointed out that job satisfaction is influenced by many organizational contextual factors ranging from salaries, job autonomy, job security, workplace flexibility to relationship. In particular, leaders within organizations can adopt appropriate leadership styles to affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity.Previous studies have examined the relationship between employee job satisfaction and leadership behaviour in various settings such as healthcare, military education and business organizations (Chenand Silversthorne, 2005). These studies generally indicate th at employee job satisfaction in the public sector is just as important as it is in the private sector. Consistent with this, the present study intends to examine the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction in the public sector.Leadership is a process of interaction between leaders and followers where the leader attempts to influence followers to achieve a common goal (Northhouse, 2010; Yuki, 2005). According to Chen and Chen (2008), previous studies on leadership have identified different types of leadership styles which leaders adopt in managing organization (e. g. Davis 2003; Spears and Lawerence, 2003, Dorfman and Gupta, 2004; Murray, and Riordam 2007). Among the more prominent leadership styles are burns (1978) transactional and transformational leadership styles.Transformational leaders emphasize followersÃ¢â¬â¢ intrinsic motivation and personal development. They seek to align followersÃ¢â¬â¢ aspirations and needs with desired organizational outcomes. In so doing, transformational leaders are able to foster followersÃ¢â¬â¢ commitment to the organizations and inspire them to exceed their expected performance (Silvanathan and Fekken, 2002, Jaokko and Ali 2006). With regard to dayÃ¢â¬â¢s complex organizations and dynamic business environment, transformational leader are often seen as ideal agents of change who could lead followers in times of uncertainties and high to risk-taking.In contrast, transactional leaders gain legitimacy through the use of rewards, praise and promises that would satisfy followersÃ¢â¬â¢ immediate needs (Northhouse 2010). They engage followers by offering rewards in exchange for the achievement of desired goals. 2. 9LEADERSHIP STYLES AND CONCEPTS Leadership styles range widely from a job-or task-centered orientation to a people or relationship-centered one, with many other combinations. A participative style has special merit for consideration. A supervisor uses in trying to direct, activate or otherwise p rovide a motivational atmosphere for employees.It includes leadership traits skills attitudes and behaviour that employees perceive their supervisor to have and consistently use. According to John W. Newstorm (2001) study guide stated that leadership is one in which the leader sets goals, makes decisions, gives orders and demands obedience, autocratic style of leadership. A democratic or consultative style is one in which the leader presents problems, consults with relevant individuals or solicits ideas from those with expertise and interest before making decisions. It is highly consistent with the need to employees and assumptions of Theory Y.True participation gives one or more employees the right to explore problems, gather information, make decisions, and implement them. The positive results is employees are mentally and emotionally to its success. Conditions that should be in place to assist in having the participative approach succeed include:- 1. Adequate time to consult with employees. 2. The benefits of allowing participation must exceed the cost. 3. The issue must be sufficiently interesting to engage the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind and imaginations. 4. The problem must be within the supervisors area of job freedom. . Not all problems lead themselves to the participative approach and the supervisor and employees must understand this. Examples of formal programs that encourage employee participation include:- a) Suggestion systems, which invite individual employees to submit recommendations for work improvements. b) Quality circles and total quality programs which involve formal training and problem solving, group decision making, and statistical techniques to encourage employee to continuously search for improvements in their operations. ) Employee ownership plans, also called employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) which allow employees to purchase shares of common stock in the company, thereby becoming art owners. When participate leadership fails its ofte n because:- a) It is uncomfortable to change old habits. b) It is attempted in a insincere fashion. c) Supervisors fail to follow through on employee input and decisions. d) Performance pressures produce fear and insecurity. e) Supervisors fear it could result in a loss of personal power. 2. 10SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP STYLELeadership styles should be selected with a keen sensitivity to individuals and circumstances involved. An autocratic, authoritative task centered style workers best in situations where the supervisor has lots of real power, the process requires strong control and rapport is good and in situations where just the opposite conditions prevail. A participative/democratic people centered style is best where the supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s authority hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been clearly spelled out or acknowledged, where the process and procedure are somewhat flexible, and where rapport is only average.For good performance in production or service delivery and contain style of leadership should be put in consideration as that employees are at easy and free from stress caused by bad leadership practices. When selecting an appropriate style one has to bear in mind that employees are people who have differences in both attitude likes and dislikes, so they should be all involved when coming 2. 11INTERVENING VARIABLES To understand how a leader can influence the performance of a group or individual employee or organizational subunit, it is helpful to examine intervening variables that determine employee performance.The six intervening variables in the model are based on earlier research and theory on determinants of individual and group performance (Hackman, Brousseau & Weiss, 1976). Unlike most other situations theories, the intervening variables are defined primarily. 1. Task Commitment Ã¢â¬â The extent to which unit member strive to attain a high level of performance and show a high degree of personal commitment to unit t ask objectives. 2. Ability and r ole clarity Ã¢â¬â The extent, to which unit members understand their individual job responsibilities, know what to do, and have the skills to do it. 3.Organization of the work Ã¢â¬â The extent to which effective performance strategies are used to attain unit task objectives and the work is organized to ensure efficient utilization of personnel, equipment, and facilities. 4. Cooperation and Mutual trust Ã¢â¬â The extent to which group members trust each other, share information and ideas, help each other and identify ;with ;the work unit. 5. Resource and Support Ã¢â¬â The extent to which the group has the budgetary funds, tools, equipment, supplies, personnel and facilities needed to do the work, and necessary information or assistance from other units. . External coordination Ã¢â¬â The extent to which activities of the work unit are synchronized with the interdependent activities in other parts of organization and other organizations (e. g. suppliers, clients, joint v enture partners). The intervening variables interact with each other to determine the effectiveness of a group or organizational subunit. A seriously deficiency in one intervening variable may lower group effectiveness. The greater the relative importance of a particular intervening variables the more employee performance will be reduced by a deficiency in this variable.The relative importance of the intervening variables depends on the type of work unit and other aspects of the situation. 2. 12SITUATIONAL INFLUENCE ON INTERVENING VARIABLES The situational can influence the intervening variables independently of anything done by the leader. There are two situational variables that influence task commitments are the formal reward system and the motivating properties of the work itself. Member commitment to perform the task effectively will be greater if the organization has a reward system that provides attractive rewards contingent on performance.Motivation is likely to be high for subordinates if work requires varied skills, is interesting and challenging, and provides automatic feedback about performance. Role clarity is affected by task structure, prior memberÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, and external dependencies. Conditions that increase role ambiguity are as follows: 1. the task has multiple performance criteria that are somewhat incompatible with each other and priorities are unclear. 2. the task requires continuous coordination and mutual adjustment among members. 3. he nature of the work or technological is changing requiring new skills and procedures. 4. a crisis or emergency creates confusion and 5. work unit operations are frequently affected by changes in policies, plans or priorities determined by higher management or clients. 2. 13DETERMINANTS OF TEAM PERFORMANCE 1. Commitment to shared objectives Employee performance will be higher when they are highly motivated to attain shared objectives (Mackenzie and Ahearne 1997) Task commitment is higher when the team considers the objectives worthwhile and the strategy for attaining them appropriate.Leadership behaviours that are especially relevant for increasing members commitment to shared objectives include articulating an appealing vision of what can be accomplished by the team, describing the task in a way that links it to member values and ideals, explaining why a project or task is important, involving members in planning strategies for attaining the objectives and empowering members to find creative solution to problem. 2. Member skills and Role clarityTeam performance will be higher when members have the knowledge and skills necessary to do the work and they understand what to do, how to do it, and when it must be done. In a newly formed team, or when the team has a new type of task to perform, leader can clearly explain member responsibilities and relevant procures for performing specific types f activities (Marks, Zaccaro & Mathieu, 2000). 3. Internal Organization and Coordinat ion The performance of a team depends not only on the motivation and skills of members, but also on how members are organized to use their skills.The design of work roles and the assignment of people to them determine how efficiently the team has talented people but they are given tasks for which their skills are irrelevant, or if the team uses a performance strategy that is not consistent with members skills. 4. External Coordination The performance of a team also depends upon adjusting their activities to be consistent with the activities of interdependent units inside or outside the organization (include suppliers), and the need of clients who must be accommodated (Ancona 1990).Many specific types of leadership behaviours are relevant for improving external coordination. These include maintaining a network of contacts who can provide relevant information, monitoring external events to identify threat and opportunities for the team, meeting with clients o users to lean more about their needs, consulting with other units of the organization abut plans and decisions that affect them, and facilitating shared mental models that accurately describe the relationship between the team and its environment. 5. Resources and Political SupportTeam or group performance also depends on getting information, resources and political support needed to do the work (Druskat and Wheeler, 2003) Relevant resources such as budgetary funds, tools and equipment, supplies and materials and facilities. A production team cannot maintain a high level of output without a dependable supply of materials. Leadership behaviours that are relevant for obtaining necessary resources from outside include planning the resources required for a special project or activity. 6. Mutual Trust and CooperationEven a talented, well-organized team may fail in carrying out its mission unless there is a high level of cooperation and mutual trust among the members. Cooperation is more likely when members identi fy with the team, value their membership in it and are intrinsically motivated to support it. 7. Collective Efficacy and potency. Member/employee commitment depends in part on the shared belief of members that the team is capable of successfully carrying out it mission and achieving specific task objectives (Bandura 2000, Gallagher and Ensley 2002).This shared belief is called collective efficacy or potency. A highly confident team is also likely to have a more positive mood (Mannand Hirst 2002) Collective efficacy is likely to be higher for a team with strong member skills, a high level of mutual trust and cooperation, ample resources and a relevant performance strategy. Prior success can increase collective efficacy, which in turn can enhance a team of subsequent performance. 2. 14ADVANTAGES OF USING DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHP STYLEThe participant can result in high motivation of group members, the knowledge and experience of group members can be used in decision making. Employees may f eel more committed to goals and less resistant to managerial actions. Individual abilities can be developed through participation; they may be better informed as a result of two way communication that is from the employee to the leader and also from the leader to the employee. 2. 15DISADVANTAGES OF USING DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLEAs discussed earlier this style of leadership can also have a few drawbacks to the leader and also to the organizations set goals. Some of them are; individuals may dominate the participation or make disruptive contribution, this approach can be very time consuming for the leader because of the use of two-way communication compromise can result in actions that are not the most effective. Conflict may be resolved by making the least offensive decision not the most effective; situation can develop where responsibilities are not clear cut.Participation may be viewed as a sign of inefficiency on part of a leader; subordinates may view leaders as incompetent to handle the job responsibilities. Employee performance will mostly depend on the leadership style used by the management; if it is favourable to be adapted then high productivity shall be experienced. So far the production to be maintained in employee some methods should be practiced that is manager may adopt to use a combination of two leadership style so as to balance both the employee and organization goals. 2. 16OTHER MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUESOther companies tend to use other styles of gathering information from their employees, such as management by walking around (MBWA) is a classic technique used by manages who are proactive listeners managers using this styles gather as much information as possible so that a challenging situation does not turn into a bigger problem. Listening carefully to employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ suggestions and concerns with help evade potential crises, management by walking around benefits managers by providing unfiltered, real-time information about processes and po licies that is often left out of formal communication channels.By walking around, management get an idea of the level of morale in the organization and offer help if there is trouble. A potential concern of MBWA is the manager will second-guess employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions. The manager must maintain his or her role as coach and counselor, not director. By leading decision-making responsibilities with the employee, manager can be assured of the fastest possible response time. Competence (or competency) to the ability of a individual to perform a job properly.A competency is a set of defined behaviours that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviours in individual employees. Some scholars see Ã¢â¬Å"competenceÃ¢â¬ as a combination of knowledge, skills and behaviour used to improve performance or as state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance management com petency might include systems thinking and emotional intelligence and skills in influence and negotiation. 2. 7BENEFITS OF GOOD LEADERSHIP STYLE Managing employee co-system performance facilitates the effective delivery of strategic and operational goals. There is a clear and immediate correlation between using performance management programs or software and improved business and organizational results. It benefits the organization direct financial gain in sales gain, reduce costs in the organizational also decreases the time it takes to create strategic or operational changes by communicating the changes through a new set of goal. (Business Journal 2002).Good leadership style brings about motivated workforce which optimizes incentive plans to specific goals for over achievement, not just business as usual, improves employee engagement because everyone understands how they are directly contributing to the organizations high level goals. It also improved management control, flexible responsible to management needs displays data relationships, provides well documented and communicated process documentation; organization development, performance can be thought of as Actual Results Vs Desired Results.Any discrepancy, where Actual is less than Desired, could constitute the performance improvement zone. (Business Journal 4th edition 2004) Performance Management and improvement can be thought of as a cycle. 1. Performance planning Ã¢â¬â where goals and objectives are established. 2. Performance coaching Ã¢â¬â where managers intervenes to give feedback and adjust performance. 3. Performance appraisal Ã¢â¬â where individual performance is formally documented and feedback delivered. A performance problem is any gap between Desired Results and actual Results.Performance improvement is any effort target at closing the gap between Actual Results and Desired Results. 2. 18CONCLUSION In summary, an overview of organizational performance was presented highlighting th e need for organizations to deliver results in the competitive business environment of today. As employees play a pivotal role in organizational performance, individual performance has become a topic issue, so much so that organizations go to great lengths to develop, manage and appraise it. In light of this, performance management and individual performance was discussed.Finally, the relationship between performance and leadership was discussed, demonstrating the relationship between them. It is clear that there is definitely a need to identify and implement leadership that enables East Africa Organization to become globally competitive. It has generally been acknowledged that organizational performance requires effective leadership and performance will suffer in direct proportion to the neglect of this. A broad overview of performance has been presented with some reference to its relationship with leadership. It is now important to discuss leadership in detail. CHAPTER THREE METHO DOLOGY . 0OVERVIEW This chapter covers the research design, population of the study, sample design/procedure, data collection instruments, data collection procedure and data analysis techniques. 3. 1STUDY AREA The research design is a case study which involves one single company where the research is to be undertaken. For this case the selected company is Mombasa Municipal Council of Mombasa. 3. 2POPULATION OF THE STUDY The targeted population of the research is the employees of Mombasa Municipal Council. Mombasa MunicipalNumber of employees Percentage Council targeted Top Management612% Middle level employee1836%Lower level employee2652% Total50100% 3. 3SAMPLE DESIGN/PROCEDURE The sampling method employed in undertaking this research was randomly sampling; where the population i. e employees were subdivided into three levels; top management, middle and lower level of employees. 3. 4DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS In getting the relevant data for the research study, the following instru ments were used; a) Interview This involves interaction with the respondent. Direct interview of the top management and some few middle level employees was undertaken in an effort to get more necessary data relevant for this research.This method is of good advantage in the way that it is easier and clear to get feedback from the questions asked, more elaboration is given by the respondent. b) Questionnaire This is a set of questions properly designed in advance related to the subject of the interview. The questionnaire comprising of precise, short and logically segmental and concise questions calculated to retrieve the appropriate data that enabled the researcher make data based conclusions and recommendations, in reflection of the objective and fulfillment of the general purpose of the study. This method is of a good advantage in the way that:- . 5DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The event was carefully scheduled in a way that there was time for interview and for submitting of the questio nnaires to the intended respondents. The questionnaires were then collected after three days after having conducted the interviews. 3. 6DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Charts i. e pie charts, tables, bar graphs, bar charts were used to analyze the collected data. These illustrations were used to represent and interpret the collected data to meaningful and useful information. More clarification was carried in chapter four of the study. CHAPTER FOUR 4. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS This chapter covers various findings collected from the field of study by the use of questionnaires and interview. In the analysis, the study simplifies the raw data collected in relation to the objectives of the study. The data was presented in the use of tables, charts and graphs to interpret the findings. 4. 1FINDINGS The targeted population were issued with questionnaires in various departments and collected as shown below in the table. Table 4. 1. 1 showing respondent rate |Employee |Questionnaires |Question naires ollected |Percentage | | |distributed | | | |Top managers |6 |6 |15% | |Middle level |18 |12 |30% | |Lower level |26 |22 |55% | |TOTAL |40 |40 |100% |The response shows that the company uses more than one leadership style. Some of the manager responded well. Figure 4. 1. 1 showing the employee response KEY: [pic] 4. 2LEADERSHIP STYLES USED IN THE ORGANIZATION The leadership style used based on the various department. The council used a combination of Autocratic and democratic style of leadership. Table 4. 2. 1 showing respondent on leadership styles |Leadership Style |Respondents |Percentage | |Autocratic |1 |2. % | |Participation |5 |12. 5% | |Combination of Autocratic & Participation |20 |50% | |Democratic | | | |Combination of Autocratic and Democratic |6 |15% | | 8 |20% | |TOTAL |40 |100% | Figure 4. 2. 1 showing leadership style in the organization. KEY [pic] In fig. 4. 2. 1, 50% of the respondent pointed out the leadership style used by the manager was a combination of Autocratic and Participation, 20% pointed Autocratic and democratic, 15% pointed participation, 12. 5% pointed Democratic and 2. 5% pointed autocratic leadership style. 4. 3EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE DETERMINANTS The table below shows response on the determinants of employee performance.Table 4. 3. 1 showing determinant of employee performance |Employee levels |Respondent |Percentage | |Top managers |4 |10% | |Middle level |16 |40% | |Lower level |20 |50% | |TOTAL |40 |100% |Figure 4. 3. 1 showing the level of employees who are motivated. KEY: [pic] From the Pie Chart above the percentages of the respondent was 50% of the lower level employee, 40% from the middle level and 10% from the top management. This shows that most of the employees performed better when motivated financial than the non finance which was from the top senior managers. 4. 4DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE AND GOOD EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE The table below shows employee response on democratic leadership style and employee perf ormance.Table 4. 4. 1 showing democratic leadership style and good employee performance |Good Employee levels |Respondent |Percentage | |Agree |18 |45% | |Strongly agree |22 |52. 5% | |Disagree |1 |2. % | |Strongly disagree |Nil |0% | |TOTAL |40 |100% | Figure 4. 4. 1 showing democratic leadership style and good employee performance KEY: [pic] From the figures the biggest percentage 52. 2% strongly greeted that democratic leadership style brings about good employee performance in the organization, 45% also agreed and the smallest percentage of 2. % disagreed. 4. 5ADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE Employees are more productive when motivated by their leaders hence democratic style is best. It reduces employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ conflict and stress caused by dictatorship style of leadership. It builds employee confidence, morale hence perform the best. 4. 6DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE REDUCES EMPLOYEE CONFLICT AT THE WORK PLACE The table below shows the responden t to the democratic leadership style & conflict reduction at the work place. Democratic leadership style reduces |Respondent |Percentage | |employee conflict | | | |Strongly agree |28 |70% | |Agree |10 |25% | |Disagree |1 |2. % | |Strongly disagree |1 |2. 5% | |TOTAL |40 |100% | Table 4. 6. 1 showing respondent to the democratic leadership style. 70% of the respondent pointed out that they strongly agreed on the fact that democratic leadership style reduces employee conflict hence increase productivity. 25% agreed and 2. 5% were not to agreeing to that. CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION . 0DISCUSSIONS This chapter covers the conclusion and recommendations. It also fills the gap in between. From the study it was found that the company used more than one leadership style so that it may fit with their employees. The top managers used such different style to be compatible to their employee as a means of motivation so that they perform better. 5. 1CONCLUSIONS It was conducted that for employees to perform better some rules must be applied that is, good working tools, conducive environment, good employee relations, motivation, training of employee on relevant fields.Most of the respondent from the company pointed out that good leadership style may bring about good employee performance. Apart from that age also matters in the way that middle employee tend to be more active hence perform better than those in mid 50Ã¢â¬â¢s and above. 5. 2RECOMMENDATIONS In view of the findings the researcher recommendations were, that the company has to put in place good understanding of employees, on matters affecting them and their work. It was suggested that the management should put in place a good communication channel though which employee shall follow when in problem.The management should encourage employees to work as a team, share tasks to avoid overloading employees, share profit of the company, motivate the employees to even work extra harder in doing their jobs hence increase productivity. It is also very important to consider employees in formulation of policies and procedures of the organization; consult the employee so that they express their views on matters affecting them. It was recommended that employees to be given good working tools, share tasks, ideas and also given an opportunity to acting positions of managers so that they have experience as well as motivating them to perform better.Employees will be more committed if the roles and tasks are well defined to reduce role conflict as who is to do what and where or when at the work place. Doing so shall build the employees morale to work hard and gives them confidence to work towards the set goals an objectives of the organization. 5. 3GAPS TO BE FILLED There was a gap to be filled by other researchers. It was not clear whether the leadership style affected the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance or thereÃ¢â¬â¢re were other factors affecting them to perform poorly. REFERENCE S . Armstrong and Baron (1998) Performance Management Ã¢â¬â The New Realities 2. Brewster Cobbler Holland and Warnich, 2003. Contemporary issues in Human Resource 3. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1995) Ã¢â¬â Harvard Bus Review 4. Norton (1999) The balanced scorecard: ParticipantÃ¢â¬â¢s Workbook 5. Hellriegel et al (2000) Management Second South Africa Edition 6. Hallaway, Francis Hinton (1999) The International Journal of Public Sector Management 7. Amos et al 2004 Human Resource Management 2nd Edition 8. Cherrington 1994, Baird (1986)Organization Behaviour 9. Foor and Hook (1999) Introduction to Human Resource Management 10. Cummings and Schwab (1973) Performance in Organizations determinants and appraisal 11. Bass 1997; Mullins 1999 Leadership and Performance beyond expectations 12. Brand, et al, (2000) Organizational development and transformation 13. Leadership in Organization by Gary Yuki 14. Supervisory Management by P. W. Betts (Seventh Edition) 15. Study Guide Supervision 8t h edition by John W. Newstorm APPENDICES APPENDIX I WORK PLAN OF THE PROJECT Activity |Schedule | |Proposal writing |October 2011 | |Proposal submission |October 2011 | |Data collection |October 2011 | |Data Analysis & Presentation |November 2011 | |Typing setting, editing and printing |November 2011 | |Submission |December 2011 | APPENDICES APPENDIX II FINANCIAL BUDGET |Item |Quantity |Price (Ksh. ) |Amount | | | | |(Ksh. | |Stationary | | | | |Fullscapes |1 ream |@500/= |500. 00 | |Printing papers |1 ream |@500/= |500. 00 | |Typesetting & Printing |50 pages |@20/= |1,000. 00 | |Photocopy |50 pages |@3/= |150. 00 | |Binding |2 copies |@50/= x2 |100. 0 | |Transport |- |- |800. 00 | |Tools | | | | |Pen |2 pieces |@20/= x 2 |40. 00 | |Pencil |1 piece |@10/= |10. 00 | |Ruler |1 piece |@20/= |20. 00 | |Other expenses |- | |200. 0 | |Total | | |3,320. 00 | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â DEMOCRATIC+IMPROVED+FAVOURABLE LEADERSHIPPERFORMANCEEMPLOYEE ST YLEEVALUATION Low structure/ High Structure/ High consideration High consideration Low structure/ High Structure/ Low consideration Low consideration Lower level employee Line manager Middle staff Autocratic & Participation Autocratic & Democratic Participation Democratic Autocratic Lower level employee Middle level Top level Strongly agree Agree Disagree