Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Antonio Gramscis Theory of Hegemony
Antonio Gramscis Theory of HegemonyHegemony is the exercisees by which s all everyplaceeign culture maintains its controlling position for example, the use of institutions to peealize power the employment of a bureaucratism to make power seem abstract (and, therefore, non attached to any(prenominal) one individual) the inculcation of the populace in the ideals of the hegomonic collection through education, advertising, publication, etcetera the mobilization of a police force as hale as military personnel to subdue opposition.In internationalist dealing, there is a consolidated tradition that associates hegemony and world order. Nevertheless, the relation between the two variables, their interpretation, and the counseling of the causal link between them, is still a matter of profound debate.The definition of hegemony and an empire has been hotly debated over the past few decades. ab forth believe hegemony is a tactic to avoid the word empire and the oppose connotation s that ar associated with it. Others believe that a hegemony is a more technical, well opinion out form of an empire. Some believe it is a lesser form of imperialism. Although one thing that is not disputed is the fact that hegemony very well is a form of confidence over a smaller, weaker nation, and no matter what one may call it, or how it may be approached, dominance lead continue to flourish through the ages. Referring to the organization of the international outline after the Second World War, Kindleberger argued that stensibly, the system was organized by rules and international institutions. In reality, it was led by the United StatesIn this es opine, Antonio Gramscis hegemony approach impart be deeply analysed and examined and also compared and contrasted with the new(prenominal)s approaches.GRAMSCIS THEORY OF HEGEMONYIn order to figure Gramsci and the concept of hegemony, one has to look briefly at the work of Karl Marx. Marxism viewed everything in life as determin ed by capital. (Williams, R. 1977) The flow of money affects our traffic with other good deal and the world surrounding us. Marx stated that everything around us, our activities and bearing of life is determined by economical content. According to Marxism, men incur themselves born in a process independent of their will, they bottomnot control it, they can seek only to understand it and guide their actions accordingly. (Williams, R. 1977)The crime syndicate struggle was an beta part of Marxism. Marxism stated that society can only be mum in terms of a system where the dominant ideas are theorize by the ruling visible body to secure its control over the on the job(p) class. (Williams, R. 1977) Due to exploitation, the workings class will eventually try and mixed bag this situation through revolution producing its give birth ideas as well as its own industrial and semipolitical organization.Marxs work is highly kneadd by economic reasoning. He divides this economic re asoning into two levels, being the antecedent and superstructure. The base is composed by the material production, money, objects, the relations of production and the stage of emergence of productive forces. (Williams, R. 1977) The superstructure is where we find the political and ideological institutions, our brotherly relations, set of ideas our cultures, hopes, dreams and spirit. (Williams, R. 1977) two the base and superstructure are shaped by capital.While one could say that Marx was primarily concerned with the base and economic issues, Gramscis work seeks to focus on the superstructure and ideologies. For Gramsci, the class struggle must always involve ideas and ideologies. These ideas would lead to a revolution and to change. Gramsci tried to build a theory which recognized the autonomy, liberty and importance of culture and ideology. (Ransome, P. 1992) Gramsci took the superstructure a step further when he dual-lane it into institutions that were despotic and those t hat were not. The unequivocal ones, were basically the public institutions such as the government, police, gird forces and the legal system which he regarded as the state or political society and the non- authoritative ones were the others such as the churches, the schools, trade unions, political parties, cultural associations, clubs and family, which he regarded as civil society. (Boggs, C. 1976) So for Gramsci, society was made up of the relations of production as well as the state or political society and civil society.Gramsci give birthed the analysis of capitalism put fore by Marx and accepted that the struggle between the ruling class and the subordinate working class was the driving force that moved society forward. (Boggs, C. 1976) Gramsci did not agree with the notion put forward by Marx that the ruling class stayed in power solely because they had economic power. He thus introduced his own concept using ideology. Ideology is the shared ideas or beliefs which serve t o unloosen the interests of dominant groups. (Boggs, C. 1976) Gramsci felt that ideological power kept the ruling class in power because it allowed them to brainwash and manipulate the rest of society.Ideology is the viscous force which binds tidy sum together. Ideology, like hegemony must not only emit the class interests of the capitalist or working class. Gramsci insists that ideology has a material nature in the brotherly lives of individuals, as ideologies are embedded in communal modes of living and acting. (R. Simon, 1992) This means that ideologies are embodied in the social practices of individuals and in the institutions and organizations within which these social practices take place. Ideology provides wad with the rules of matter-of-fact conduct and moral behavior. Ideological power stems from norms or shared understandings of how people should act morally in their relations with each other. (R. Simon, 1992) Those who monopolize ideological power have authority ov er others.Subordinate groups tend to accept the ideas and determine of the dominant group without physical or mental influence because they know no better or there are not other alternatives. (Ransome, P. 1992) From Gramscis view, the bourgeoisie gained and maintained power due to economic command and intellectual and moral leadership. Here, Gramsci introduced a new concept which he called hegemony. Hegemony is a set of ideas by means of which dominant groups strive to secure the take over of subordinate groups to their leadership. (Ransome, P. 1992) It occurs when dominant classes in society maintain their dominance persuading the other classes of society to accept their moral, political and cultural values. This means that the majority in a population give consent to policies and ideologies implemented by those in power. One must not assume that this consent is always willing. Those in power may combine physical force or irresistible impulse with intellectual, moral and cultur al persuasion. (Ransome, P. 1992) The dominant ideology is thus accepted, practiced and spread. Hegemony emerges out of social and class struggles and serves to shape and influence people.According to Gramsci, hegemony never disappears precisely is constantly changed. He describes two forms of social control. The first type is coercive control which is accomplishd through the use of direct force or affright of force. (Simon, R. 1992) The second type is consensual control which arises when individuals voluntarily adopt the worldview of the dominant group. (Simon, R. 1992)Gramsci says that within civil society, the dominant group exercises hegemony which is intellectual mastery over the subordinate group or consensual control, whereas in political society, domination is exercised through state or juridical government or coercive control. (Gramsci, A. 1971) These habits are very much interlinked in the sense that intellectual domination is usually preceded by political domination. Social hegemony and political government are enforced historically in which the dominant group enjoys its position because of its function in the world of production and legally by state coercive power which enforces discipline on groups that do not consent. (Gramsci, A. 1971) This gives rise to a division of labor or specialization and to a whole pecking order of qualifications.Gramsci stated that the only way the working class can achieve hegemony is if it takes into account the interests of other groups and social forces and finds ways of combining them with its own interests. (Ransome, P. 1992) In other words, the working class will need to build alliances with social minorities, taking into account their struggles against the capital class, thus strengthening the position of the working class. The labour process was at the center of the class struggle entirely it was the ideological struggle that had to be addressed if the mass of the people were to sum up to a realization that allowed them to question their political and economic rulers right to rule.Hegemony is exercised in civil society which is a tangle of class struggles and democratic struggles. (Simon, R. 1992) Hegemony in civil society must achieve leadership in the field of operation of production taken up by the bourgeoisie, controlling the productive process and achieving state power. Those who have economic power have a slopped link to political power and vice versa. Those who monopolize control over economic production, distribution, exchange and consumption is the dominant class which has the most power.A change in hegemony may occur when the dominant class begins to jibe up, creating an opportunity for the subordinate classes to merge and build up a travail capable of challenging the weakened dominant class and achieving hegemony. But, if this opportunity is not taken, then the dominant class has the opportunity to reorganize new alliances and reconstruct hegemony.Hegemony goes bey ond culture which is the whole social process in which people define and shape their lives. It is bases in ideology which is a system of meanings and values that expresses a particular class interest. (Simon, R. 1992) In order to create a class strong enough to have hegemony, one has to first teach a solid ideology based on specific interests that will dominate the rest of society, using the influence of capitalist relations.Gramsci felt that in order to have hegemony, ideologies have to be instilled by certain people or leaders. Gramsci determine intellectuals as leaders in society. He identified two types of intellectuals. The first is traditional intellectuals who are people that regard themselves as independent of the dominant social group and are regarded as such by the majority of the population. (Gramsci, A. 1971) The second type is the organic intellectual. This is the group that grows organically with the ruling class, and is their thinking and organizing element. (Gramsc i, A. 1971) They were produced by the educational system to perform a function for the dominant social group in society. It is through this group that the ruling class maintains its hegemony over the rest of society.